What is Yellow Fever?
What is Yellow Fever? Yellow fever is a disease caused by a virus that is transmitted through an intermediate mosquito. Generally present in areas of South America, Africa, and the Caribbean.
The mosquito carrying the virus in his body then spread to residents around the people and tourists who are visiting the area to cause fever and serious disorders of the liver and kidney. Viral infections that have propagated to the liver also interfere with the function of this organ, causing changes in skin color to turn yellow.
Causes of Yellow Fever
The spread of yellow fever is caused by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito which initially bites the sufferer of this disease, generally human and monkey. This mosquito then transmits yellow fever among fellow humans or other monkeys, or from humans to monkeys, and vice versa. In addition to the Sahara desert in Africa and the tropical regions of South America, or even clean human settlements, do not escape the breeding of these mosquitoes.
The virus that eventually settles in the salivary glands of Aedes aegypti mosquito is then entered into the human bloodstream or other monkeys through bites and cause pain in the new host it inhabits. Beware dusk until dawn because at these times the spread of yellow fever virus most often occurs, when Aedes aegypti mosquitoes become very active.
Symptoms of Yellow Fever
Yellow fever causes fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, and muscle pain in the sufferer. Generally there are three stages of yellow fever virus infection with an early stage that tends to be indistinguishable from other viral infections, or it may be asymptomatic. Initial stages of infection can last for 3-4 days and usually begin 3-6 days from viral infection or since mosquito bites occur. Other symptoms that may arise are loss of appetite, sensitive excessive to light, and redness of the eyes, tongue, and face.
The second stage is the stage of remission, where the patient’s condition appears to be improving. In general, the patient recovered at a stage that lasted approximately 2 days. Even so, it is advisable to stay alert because in about 15-25 percent of patients can enter the third phase of a more risky and can lead to death.
In the third phase, beware of the appearance of damage to the liver that can make the color of the eyes and skin to yellow. In addition, fever may appear accompanied by bleeding in the body, vomiting blood, liver inflammation or hepatitis, as well as multi-organ damage.
Diagnosis of Yellow Fever
Symptoms of yellow fever are quite common and can be experienced also by several other diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever so that the diagnosis of yellow fever is obtained one of them based on the history of the journey conducted by the patient. After that the doctor will perform a blood test to determine the presence of virus types contained in the body.
See your doctor as soon as you feel the symptoms of yellow fever mentioned above, especially after or are on a visit to countries that have cases of yellow fever.
Treatment of Yellow Fever
There is no antiviral medication that can cure yellow fever. However, supportive handling is needed to deal with symptoms. Common symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle pain can be treated with painkillers, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen. However, other diseases caused by yellow fever complications, such as damage to organs triggering conditions of kidney failure would require appropriate follow-up treatment at the hospital.
Treatments that can be recommended for yellow fever may include oxygen, blood pressure, dialysis for people with renal failure, and plasma cell transfusions to increase blood clotting levels.
Prevention of Yellow Fever
Yellow fever can be prevented by administering a vaccine before someone travels to an area potentially spreading yellow fever. The vaccine can be done at least ten days before the departure time with the ideal time of vaccine is 3-4 weeks. Safe age to receive this vaccine is a patient with an age range between 9 months to 60 years to get rid of the risk of inflammation of the brain until death.
Side effects can last for 5-10 days post vaccine. The side effects are perceived as common and mild, ie fever, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue and pain in the area of vaccination injection. In some rare cases, yellow fever vaccination can lead to allergic reactions, reactions to the nervous system, and even death so consultation with doctors is recommended before vaccination.
People who have received yellow fever vaccine will get a certificate that must be disclosed before entering a potential area. This vaccine lasts up to 10 years or may last a lifetime. The vaccine certificate will expire in 10 years if you get it before June 2016. Currently the World Health Organization states the provision of booster / booster vaccine may not be necessary except in certain circumstances.
You may have to get a booster ahead of departure to the affected yellow fever area if you have got it more than 10 years ago and you need a vaccine certificate.
If you want to leave for an area affected by yellow fever and get a vaccine for more than 10 years, the following people are also recommended to get booster:
- Women who are pregnant
- Children under two years of age
- A person with a low immune system, such as HIV and prospective bone marrow transplant recipients.
As an additional precaution, avoiding mosquito stings can also be done by using mosquito repellent on the skin and clothing. You can use mosquito repellent containing permethrin in clothing, shoes, camping gear, and on the doorboard of additional doors and windows. As for the skin, use a special skin-resistant mosquito repellent. Mosquito repellent for skin with active picaridin, IR3535, and DEET ingredients in high concentrations can provide longer protection from the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Use wisely and adjust to the time required. Avoid using mosquito repellents in children under the age of two because they contain harmful chemicals. Instead you can use mosquito repellent on stroller or mosquito net while outdoors. Some natural ingredients, such as lemon eucalyptus oil, can also be used with the exception of children under the age of three.
Remember to keep your travel data, such as outdoor locations, especially if there is an area affected by yellow fever. Patients who have or have experienced yellow fever and recover, eventually will naturally form immune to the disease.