What is Type 2 Diabetes?
What is Type 2 Diabetes? Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas (the salivary glands) does not produce enough insulin, or when the body does not effectively use insulin. Ordinary diabetes is characterized by blood sugar levels above normal. While type 2 diabetes is a diabetes caused by the body is not effective use of insulin or lack of insulin relative to blood sugar levels.
Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Indonesia
By 2015, diabetics in Indonesia are estimated to reach 10 million people with an age range of 20-79 years (quoted from the International Diabetes Federation). However, only about half of them are aware of his condition.
Based on research by Riskesdas (Basic Health Research) from the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 2013, about 12 million Indonesians over the age of 15 are suffering from type 2 diabetes. This means 6.9 percent of the total population aged above 15 years. But only 26 percent are already diagnosed, while the rest are not aware of themselves as people with type 2 diabetes.
Causes of Type 2 Diabetes
The cells in the human body need energy from sugar (glucose) to function normally. What usually controls blood sugar is the hormone insulin. Insulin helps cells take and use glucose from the bloodstream. If the body lacks a relative insulin, it means that blood sugar levels are very much due to excessive intake so that insulin levels appear to be reduced; Or the emergence of resistance to insulin in the body’s cells, blood sugar (glucose) will increase dramatically. This is what triggers and becomes the cause of diabetes (diabetes mellitus).
Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in people who are overweight and lack of physical movement. Usually the lifestyle that is not actively trigger the occurrence of this disease. That’s why type 2 diabetes has long been common in adults. But now, the number of people with type 2 diabetes in children is also starting to increase.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes is a classic symptom, meaning it is a symptom that is always present in diabetes, either type 1 or type 2. Among them:
- Frequent urination, especially at night.
- Often feel thirsty.
- A growing hunger often.
Other symptoms that can also appear in type 2 diabetes, among others:
- Reduced muscle mass.
- Weight loss.
- Slow wounds heal or often have an infection.
- Vague views.
Consult your doctor if you feel the symptoms above so that early diagnosis and treatment can be done.
Treatment and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes
Although diabetes can not be cured, early diagnosis is so important that diabetes can be treated immediately. Early detection allows blood sugar levels of diabetics to be controlled.
The goal of diabetes treatment is to maintain a balance of blood sugar levels and control the symptoms to prevent possible complications. Changing lifestyle can also control the symptoms of type 2 diabetes, for example by applying a healthy diet, regular exercise, limit consumption of alcoholic beverages, and quit smoking.
This type of diabetes is a progressive disease. Therefore, people with type 2 diabetes will generally need drugs to maintain the balance of blood sugar levels.
Diabetes can lead to a number of complications if ignored. High blood sugar levels can cause damage to blood vessels, nerves, and organs.
Diabetes Experienced by Pregnant Women
Diabetes can also be experienced by pregnant women and is usually known as gestational diabetes. This is because women who get pregnant sometimes have blood sugar levels that exceed normal but still not including sugar levels in diabetes, but insulin also can not control it.
Gestational diabetes can increase the risk of maternal and fetal health complications. Therefore, it is very important for diabetics who are pregnant to maintain the balance of blood sugar levels.