What is Sudden Cardiac Arrest?
What is Sudden Cardiac Arrest? Sudden cardiac arrest is a condition in which the heart rate suddenly stops, causing the sufferer to be unable to breathe and lose consciousness. This condition is very dangerous because it can cause defects until death in minutes if not quickly handled.
Sudden cardiac arrest occurred without warning. This is caused by electrical impulses (electrical impulses) in the heart so that inhibits the activity of pumping blood and stop the blood circulation in the body.
This condition is different from a heart attack, where the blood flow to the side of the heart is inhibited. However, this heart attack can also trigger a disruption of electricity and cause someone stricken suddenly.
Causes of Sudden Cardiac Arrest
The main cause of sudden cardiac arrest is arrhythmia (cardiac rhythm disorder) that occurs due to interference in the heart’s power (sinus node) center. Sinus node serves as a regulator of the flow of electricity in the heart that helps control the rhythm and pumping process. If there is a problem, automatic heart rhythm becomes irregular so that the heart’s ability to pump blood will be disrupted. There are two types of artemia that can occur:
- Ventricular Fibrillation. This is the condition in which the ventricle (the lower portico of the heart) vibrates excessively and disrupts the rhythm. This weakens or even stops the heart’s ability to pump blood, which can lead to sudden death in the sufferer.
- Atrial fibrillation. This condition occurs when the atrium (upper chamber of the heart) stops pumping blood when the sinus node located in the right atrium does not deliver sufficient electrical current to other parts of the heart.
In addition, there are also a host of other causes that trigger sudden cardiac arrest, including:
- Coronary heart disease. This disease is often a trigger of sudden cardiac arrest, especially in patients over the age of 35 years who have heart problems. In coronary heart disease, blood flow to the heart will be inhibited, so the heart difficult to conduct electricity.
- Weak heart (cardiomyopathy). As the muscle widens or develops abnormalities, the heart will weaken and cause the entire pumping process to be disturbed.
- Long QT syndrome or syndrome Disease syndrome or syndrome conditions in the heart of this heart can make the heart rhythm becomes irregular.
- Marfan’s syndrome. Genetic diseases that invade this tissue can result in some parts of the heart depressed and weakened.
- Abnormalities from birth. Although the disorder has been treated or operated, the patient is still very vulnerable to sudden attack.
The risk of sudden cardiac arrest will also increase if a person has a habit or is in a certain stage, such as:
- Minimize movement or exercise.
- High blood pressure (hypertension).
- Has a history of heart disease, either personal or family.
- Had time to consume substances or inappropriate treatment.
- Lack of potassium or magnesium.
In general, sudden cardiac arrest is common in men over 45 and women over 55. However, this does not close the possibility of this disease can affect patients under the age.
Symptoms of Sudden Cardiac Arrest
Sudden cardiac arrest patients can be saved if they recognize symptoms that arise early. Some of the symptoms that may be felt by the patient include:
- Shortness of breath.
- Feeling weak or tired.
- Feel heart palpitations (irregular heart rhythm).
Respond quickly and help the patient if experiencing conditions such as:
- Chest pain.
- The pulse is not heard or felt.
- Difficulty breathing or stopping completely.
- Feeling pain in both shoulders, back, neck, or jaw.
In general, sudden cardiac arrest has no symptoms and occurs directly. Immediately contact your nearest doctor or hospital if you see 1 or more symptoms occur in the patient.
While waiting, it is advisable to be with the patient and assist him with Lung Heart Resuscitation (CPR) or known as CPR if in a non-breathing condition. This can be done by pressing the center of the chest quickly and strongly until the patient is conscious or until medical help arrives.
Diagnosis of Sudden Cardiac Arrest
In the early stages, the doctor will act by giving electric shock through the chest using a tool called a defibrillator to normalize the heart rhythm, and monitor the rhythm using an electrocardiogram (EKG) that is placed in the chest and legs.
If the patient survives the attack, the doctor will also perform a series of tests to further examine the condition of the heart and its causes, such as:
- Blood test. The doctor will take the patient’s blood sample to see potassium, magnesium, hormone, and other substances that can affect heart health.
- X-ray. This radiology test helps the doctor check the size and structure of the heart as well as the blood vessels.
- Echocardiogram. This test helps to identify parts of the heart that are not functioning properly or have a disability through sound waves.
- Nuclear scan. This test is performed to identify the blood flow in the heart, using a radioactive substance called thallium injected in the blood vessels and monitored through a special camera. This test is usually done along with pressure tests to get more optimal results.
- Electrophysiological tests and mapping. With the help of a small flexible pipe equipped with an electrode called a catheter, the doctor will monitor the heart rhythm through various electrical points.
- Angiogram. In this test, the doctor will inject a special dye substance on the blood vessel to the heart using a catheter. This test is done to mark the location of blockage with the help of X-ray and video recording.
- Ejection fraction test. One of the effects of sudden cardiac arrest is the inability of the heart to pump blood according to its normal capacity.Ejection fraction is done to help the doctor calculate the percentage of the heart’s ability to pump blood (normal levels 55-70%) and see if there is a drastic decline. Aids such as MRI scan, CT Scan, catheter, nuclear scan and echocardiogram can be used to fulfill this test.
Treatment of Sudden Cardiac Arrest
Sudden cardiac arrest patients should be treated early and the first thing most recommended is the action of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This action is done by pressing the chest strongly and as much as 100-120 times per minute.
Position one hand over the chest and the other positioned just above the first hand, while asking if the patient has started to realize. Make sure both the elbows and your shoulders are straight so that the pressure becomes stronger. Do it until the consciousness starts to look or until the medical team arrives. If the patient has not been conscious, the doctor or medical team will usually use a defribrillator to provide electric shock to the heart until the heart rhythm returns to normal.
If the patient has passed a critical period, the doctor will provide follow-up treatment to ease the risk of re-attack, such as:
- Drugs. Doctors will typically provide long-term, long-term drugs such as anti-arrhythmics to relieve heart rhythm, beta-antagonist problems to relieve the risk of recurrent seizures, to supportive drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), calcium inhibitors , Or amiodarone (Cordarone or Pacerone). However, keep in mind that these medications have side effects such as aggravate the condition of the arrhythmia or accelerate the heart rhythm. Talk to your doctor to find out the right treatment for your condition.
- Implantation of cardiac defibrillator (ICD). When the patient’s condition begins to stabilize, the doctor will usually recommend a Heart Defibrillator Implantation device, a battery-powered device mounted on the left breast and connected to the heart using electrode hoses to monitor heart rhythm. If the device detects an unbalanced heart rhythm, a mild to severe shock will be released in order for the rhythm to return to its original state. Implantation of this tool is said to be more effective at minimizing the risk of re-attacks than drugs, but should only be given as directed by a physician.
- Coronary angioplasty. This action is done to open the coronary blood vessels are inhibited so that blood can flow easily to the heart and reduce the risk of arrhythmia. Generally, the doctor will insert a thin and flexible tube (catheter) into the leg blood vessels up to the blocked heart. This catheter is equipped with a special balloon that will expand in case of obstruction of the heart’s blood vessels. In addition, doctors may also insert special iron tools in the arteries to keep them open and prolong the flow of blood for the long term.
- Radiofrequency catheter ablation. This action is commonly done to inhibit one of the electrical pathways in the heart causing the arrhythmia, by positioning the catheter through the blood vessels to the point that doctors suspect the cause of the arrhythmia.
- Bypass surgery This operation is commonly done to create a new channel over clogged blood vessels to restore blocked blood flow. This action can help reduce the frequency of arrhythmias.
- Corrective heart surgery. If the patient has congenital heart abnormalities, the doctor may suggest surgical repair of the tissues or heart valves to smooth the blood flow as well as heart rhythm and mitigate the risk of a sudden onset attack later in life.
- Sports and dietary changes. To support the treatment given, your doctor may advise you to perform certain types of exercise and change your daily dietary patterns to strengthen your heart and avoid the danger of cholesterol or other deadly diseases.
complications of Sudden Cardiac Arrest
A person with sudden cardiac arrest usually has a slight chance of recovering because the brain is deprived of oxygen supply and blood flow, especially if it is over 8 minutes. If the patient has passed a critical stage, conditions such as brain damage may occur.
Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Arrest
Sudden cardiac arrest can happen to anyone, whether they have a history of heart disease or not. This condition can be prevented in a series of ways:
- Avoid smoking.
- Reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages.
- Always actively exercise.
- Eat nutritious foods.
- Perform routine checks, whether at risk or not.
- Consume drugs regularly for people with diabetes, cholesterol and other triggering diseases while following a good diet.
For those at risk, doctors will usually suggest various preventive measures such as taking anti-arrhythmic drugs or implanting heart defibrillators. In addition, you may be advised to learn CPR techniques or the use of an external defibrillator if you have a family with a disease or heart disorder. This is done to ease the potential for further complications to death.
Athletes also have the potential to experience sudden cardiac arrest even if they are in prime condition before. This is generally caused by undiagnosed disease or symptoms, such as weak heart or cardiomyopathy. To avoid this sort of thing happening, it is advisable to do a routine check so that handling can be done early if needed.
Everyone needs to know the symptoms and the handling that needs to be done in order to save yourself as well as others. Talk to your doctor about the right conditions and prevention measures to suit your condition.