What is Sprain?
What is Sprain? Sprain is an injury that occurs in the ligaments. Ligaments are connective tissues that connect between the bones and support the joints. Whereas damage occurs to the muscles or tendons, it is called strain or tension injury. Tendons are connective tissue connecting bones and muscles.
Sprain is most common in the ankle. This condition is one of the injuries often experienced by athletes.
Based on the severity of injury to the ligaments, the severity of the sprains is divided into three:
- Level 1 sprain. The occurrence of mild stretching on the ligaments that do not affect the stability of the joints
- Level 1 sprain: Tearing a small part of the ligament that has little or no impact on the joint
- Level 1 sprain: Severe sprain. The total ligaments in the ligaments and joints become unstable.
The Cause of Sprain
Sprains generally occur when there is an excessive stretching or ligament tear due to severe sudden stress on the joint. Some examples of activities that can cause, among others, fall in an unhealthy position, lack of heating, or the wrong exercise techniques while exercising.
Symptoms of Sprain
Sprains cause inflammation or bleeding in the ligaments that can be visible visibly as bruises and swelling around the affected area. As a result of the pain caused by this inflammation, you may have trouble moving the affected part, such as the knee, leg, or leg. When an injury occurs, you may hear a “pop” sound, indicating a shifted joint.
To get a proper diagnosis, the doctor will ask some questions at the beginning of the examination. The doctor will inquire about the activities you are doing before experiencing any sprain, handling or treatment that has been taken, while checking instability on the joints. The condition of the joints can indicate the severity of the sprain experienced. The doctor will check by observing the infected area and ask you to try to move or place a load on the area.
Several other support tests may be undertaken to check for sprained areas, such as X-rays, ultrasound examinations, or MRI scans. Scans of X-rays will be recommended in patients with sprains over the age of 55 years and have already suffered knee injuries and thus have a greater risk of bone fracture.
In severe or rare cases, diagnosis may be obtained simultaneously with treatment through surgical procedures. Operative measures can help detect unknown torn ligaments when injury occurs.
Treatment of Sprain
Sprain treatment aims to relieve inflammation and swelling. In addition it can to reduce pain in the infected area so that the joints can immediately return to work.
There are several handling steps that can be done at home to help treat sprains, first is to protect and keep the infected area from possible recurrence of sprains. This first step is called Protect.
Avoid doing activity for 48-72 hours after experiencing a sprain so that the infected wrist can rest and obtain adequate maintenance and recovery time. This second step is called Rest (Rest). Use safety shoes or crutches if you are forced to move throughout the treatment period.
Compress the area with a sprained ice cubes as soon as possible to reduce inflammation, pain, and bruising for 10-30 minutes with a 15 minute pause for two hours. This third step is called Ice (Ice). Do it by wrapping ice cubes using a towel before being placed in an infected area to avoid skin damage from burns of ice. You can also use frozen packaged food if you do not have ice at home. Avoid leaving ice compresses on your wrists while you are asleep.
You can also wrap your wrist with a pressurized elastic bandage to reduce swelling in the first 48 hours. This fourth step is called Compression . Make sure the bandage is not too tight so as not to inhibit blood flow and do not forget to remove the bandage before you sleep.
Placing the wrists at the same minimum height as the hip height while you sit can also help reduce swelling. This fifth step is called Elevation. You can also put your feet on a chair, cushion, or arm of the sofa.
Do not ignore these first aid measures if you experience a sprain. In short, this help is called PRICE.
To help the recovery process run quickly, in addition to PRICE, it is advisable to avoid being exposed to HARM on the wrists for two to three days. HARM methods include:
- Exposure to heat (Heat), such as a hot shower or using hot compresses during a 2-3 day healing period. Hot water can make inflammation and bleeding or bruising worse due to smoother blood flow.
- Consuming alcoholic beverages (alcohol) excessively can also cause bleeding and swelling that inhibits the healing process.
- Running can increase the risk of an infected wrist experiencing a back sprain.
- Massage done during healing period can aggravate swelling and bleeding. It is recommended to do the massage after three days of having sprained.
Some painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs may be given to relieve pain in severe cases of sprain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can help reduce inflammation and swelling. Some of these drugs and painkillers, such as ibuprofen and paracetamol, can be purchased at pharmacies. But there are also some drugs that require a prescription, especially if it is for patients who are in other medications. Always pay attention to the dosage and instructions of use following possible side effects, such as drowsiness, indigestion, abdominal pain, and bleeding. Antinyeri medications are also available in topical form that can be applied directly to the skin of the sprained area. Discuss with your doctor and pharmacist before deciding to use the type of drug you want.
Some sprain cases may also be advised to use a cast, consult a physiotherapist, or undergo surgical procedures. Physiotherapy steps can strengthen the muscles around the infected area and improve the ability of the brain to recognize the position and adjustment to the movement of injured joints. Thus it will protect while reducing the risk of injury in the same location, as if you were using a cast. Operative action in severe cases of sprain can help restore the strength of injured wrist muscles, and is usually performed on professional athletes. Consult a physician to decide on appropriate treatment measures.
Sprains will generally recover within a few weeks, depending on the severity of the sprain. Keeping light movements slowly during the recovery period will help the joints move normally and avoid joint stiffness. Avoid heavy or excessive exercise or exercise, especially involving the infected area, for at least three weeks to one month after a sprain. Immediately check the injury to the doctor if symptoms worsen or there is no significant development after handling, such as an abnormal joint shape or not in position.
Increasing controlled physical exercise to exercise muscle strength around the ankle will reduce the risk of sprain or recurrence of injuries in areas that have experienced sprains. Recommended exercises are exercises that increase strength and flexibility, especially the ankle muscles. Do not forget also to warm up and cool down during physical activity.
Activities on uneven surfaces, such as climbing hills or mountains, are at considerable risk of sprains. To minimize the risks, it is advisable to use boots to protect an injury-prone ankle.