What is Sleep Disorders?
What is Sleep Disorders? Sleep disorders are disorders that can cause problems in sleep patterns, either because they can not fall asleep, often awakened at night, or the inability to get back to sleep after awakening. Some of the impacts caused by sleep disorders are:
- Feeling limp and sleepy.
- Easy to get angry.
- Difficult to concentrate during the day.
There are a number of conditions related to sleep disorders, including:
Snoring This condition occurs when airflow through the nose and mouth is disrupted. Snoring can be caused by various factors, including:
- Nasal channels are disturbed.
- Poor muscle tone in the throat and tongue.
- The palate is too soft.
- The Uvula is too long.
- The tissue in the throat area is too thick, for example because of fat or due to enlargement of the tonsils.
Snoring can cause a person to wake up often from sleep and lack of sleep. If this continues, it can eventually lead to more serious health problems, such as respiratory problems, increased blood pressure and increased heart workload.
Sleep Apnea or Sleep Apnea This condition occurs when the breathing is disturbed by the wall of the throat that relaxes and narrows while we are asleep. Sleep apnea is divided into two, sleep apnea obstruction that results from excessive relaxation of the throat and central sleep apnea that occurs because the brain does not send signals to the muscles to regulate breathing.
Here are some things you can do at home to cope with sleep apnea:
- Quit smoking.
- Lose weight if excessive.
- Avoid sedative drugs and sleeping pills.
- Limit alcohol consumption, especially at bedtime.
- Avoid sleeping with the supine position, but sleeping on your side.
Insomnia This condition occurs when a person has trouble sleeping or can not sleep long enough in accordance with the time required by the body, although he has a chance to do so.
The most common symptoms of insomnia are difficulty falling asleep or waking often at night or early morning. In addition there are some other symptoms, such as a mood that is volatile, difficult to concentrate during the day, and often feel tired.
Insomnia can be caused by lifestyle factors, unfavorable and uncomfortable bedrooms, psychological disorders, physical health disorders, or due to drug side effects. Treatment performed under these conditions is adjusted to the underlying conditions.
Narcolepsy This condition involves abnormalities in the nerves that affect a person’s control over sleep and waking hours. People who experience narcolepsy will experience symptoms such as:
- Feeling sleepy during the day.
- Hallucinating (the condition when a person experiences a fantasy that feels obvious and can be frightening).
- Sleep paralysis (a condition in which there is an inability to move or talk when almost asleep or when to wake up from sleep). This paralysis lasts for several minutes.
- Sudden muscle weakness and inability to control it.
There is no method that can cure narcolepsy. But drugs can be given to relieve symptoms that appear. Lifestyle changes, such as avoiding alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and heavy meals, sleeping and eating schedule arrangements, and exercising can also help improve the condition.
Circadian Rhythm Impairment This condition occurs when a person’s circadian rhythm is impaired. The circadian rhythm or the body’s internal clock is the biological clock that regulates the cycle within the human body for 24 hours. This circadian rhythm determines when we wake up and when we fall asleep.
Some of the things that can cause abnormalities in the body’s circadian rhythms are:
- Shift work system.
- Across regions between time zones.
- Influence of drugs.
- Mental disorders.
Circadian rhythm disorders are treated according to the underlying cause. The purpose of treatment for this condition is to set a sleep schedule so that the patient can adjust to their daily activities.
Hipersomnia This is a condition when a person sleeps excessively or has trouble staying awake during the day. People with hypersomnia can fall asleep anytime, for example when working or driving. In addition, they will experience energy shortages and difficulty concentrating.
Hypersomnia is caused by:
- Obese or overweight.
- Drug or drug abuse.
- Lack of sleep at night.
- Injury or abnormality in the head.
- Depression and heredity.
To overcome this condition, usually the doctor will give medicine. In addition, patients will be advised to sleep faster and avoid booze and caffeine before going to bed.
Restless Leg Syndrome This condition is characterized by an inexplicable desire to keep moving the feet, which is sometimes accompanied by a tingling sensation. In most cases, the cause of restless leg syndrome is unknown. But it is suspected that heredity is closely related to this condition.
Several other factors that allegedly triggered the occurrence of restless leg syndrome are:
- Pregnancy. Generally occurs in the third trimester.
- Chronic diseases, such as iron deficiency, renal failure, Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, and peripheral neuropathy.
- Drugs, such as antiemetics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and antihistamines.
Delirious in the REM (REM sleep behavior disorder) phase Rapid eye movement (REM) is a nomal phase in sleep, where we experience dreams. Normal REM does not cause us to be delirious, but in REM sleep behavior disorder, dreams are experienced so clearly and often unpleasantly, followed by delusions of words and hand and foot movements.
Parasomnia Parasomnia there is a group of sleep disorders characterized by abnormal movements or habits. Sleep disorders included in parasomnia are:
- Nightmare. This is a night-time event that can cause fear, horror, and anxiety. Nightmares can be caused by many things, such as illness, anxiety, negative effects of drugs, loss of loved ones, and so on.
- Sleep walking. This is the condition when someone will stand up and walk while they sleep. The eyes of someone who sleeps walking will usually look open. If asked, he or she may respond slowly or not respond at all. This condition can be caused by chaotic sleep hours, stress, drunk, or because of taking sedative drugs.
- Paralyzed or restless. This is a condition when a person can not move despite being awakened or awake from his sleep. Sleep paralysis usually occurs when a person is between waking and sleeping phases. Paralysis generally lasts for a few seconds or minutes.
- Tooth grinding. This is a condition when one likes to grind a tooth or jaw button while sleeping. Although common, the cause is unknown. This risk increases if a person experiences an exhausting situation, suffers from sleep apnea, or loss of teeth. Dental protectors can be used to prevent this condition.
- Bedwetting. This is a condition when one can not hold urine at night. Bedwetting that occurs in adults is generally caused by urinary tract infections, diabetes, neurological disorders, emotional disturbances, or structural abnormalities.
- Delirious. Conditions when someone speaks or makes a sound while sleeping. Sleeping or sleep talking (somniloquy) is very common, and is often not considered a disorder.
Sleep Disorders in Children and adolescents need at least nine hours of sleep each day. The disruption of children’s sleep hours can affect their performance in school, social relationships and extracurricular activities. Some of the following can be done to improve the quality of child’s sleep:
- Provide a calming sleep routine for children, for example reading a fairy tale or bathing them with warm water before bed.
- Determine the exact sleep time, both on school day and weekend, and do not do much
- Turn off all electronic equipment, such as TVs, computers, cell phones, and radios, one hour before bedtime.
- Do not feed them in large portions if it is close to bedtime.
- Food or beverages containing caffeine should not be given less than six hours before bedtime.
- Sleep the babies and children in their mattresses as they begin to feel tired with eyes that are still awake. Do not put them to sleep on their laps or on other mattresses.
- Make sure the bedroom temperature is cool and dim.
- Prevent noise around the house.