What is Personality Disorders?
What is Personality Disorders? Personality disorder is a condition that causes the sufferer to have an unhealthy mindset and behavior that is different from the average person.
In addition to unhealthy mindset, a condition that is also categorized as a mental illness can make it difficult for sufferers to feel, understand, or interact with others. Of course it can cause problems in social situations. Not infrequently the relationship of people with personality disorders with others in the home environment, school, business, or work to be limited.
Symptoms of personality disorder by type
Personality disorder is divided into three groups, first is the personality disorder of group A. Personality disorder of this group is usually characterized by symptoms of strange thinking and behavior. The types of personality disorder of group A are:
- Skizotypal personality disorder. In addition to their strange behavior and unnatural speech, people with this type of personality disorder often seem anxious or uncomfortable in social situations. Patients also often fantasize, for example, believes that he has the power of telepathy that can affect the emotions and behavior of others or believe that a paper in the newspaper is a hidden message for them.
- Schizoid personality disorder. The main characteristic of this type of personality disorder is the cold. They are hard-pressed to enjoy any moment, do not budge when criticized or praised, and are not interested in friendships with anyone, even the opposite sex. They tend to be loners and avoid social interaction with others.
- Paranoid personality disorder. The main characteristic of this type of personality disorder is suspicion and unbelief of others in excess, even to their spouses as well. They are always afraid that others will manipulate or harm them, and they fear their partner will betray him.
The second group of personality disorders is group B. Characteristics are unpredictable mindset and behavior, and excessive and dramatic emotions. The types of personality disorders of group B include:
- Borderline personality disorder. People who suffer from this condition usually have the urge to hurt themselves and are emotionally unstable.
- An antisocial personality disorder. People who suffer from this condition often ignore the prevailing social norms and have no sympathy when others experience distress. Patients even tend to blame others for the problems that occur in their lives. They love to intimidate others and not regret the consequences of their actions. Another feature is the inability to control anger and maintain relationships in the long run.
- Narcissistic personality disorder. People who suffer from this condition feel confident that he is more special than others. They tend to be arrogant and constantly expect praise from others. They will boast and exaggerate the achievements achieved. When they feel that someone else is superior to them, the narcissistic personality disorder will feel very jealous.
- Histrionic personality disorder. People who suffer from this condition are usually overly worried about appearance, tend to be dramatic in speech, and always seek attention. When a friendship relationship, people with this disorder will consider their relationship with friends is very close, although others think it is not.
The third group of personality disorders is group C. Although the characteristics of each of the disorders that fall within this group are different, there is one similar component, namely anxiety and fear. Group C personality disorder consists of:
- Dependent personality disorder. Patients with this condition will feel very dependent on others in any case. They can not live independently and are always overwhelmed by the fear of being left behind by others. When they are alone, they will feel uncomfortable and helpless. Due to this excessive dependence, dependent personality disorder sufferers will not be able to make decisions and assume their own responsibilities without the guidance and help of others.
- Personality disorder dodge. The main characteristic of this condition is the avoidance of social contact, especially in new activities involving foreigners. Not the same as a schizoid personality disorder, this avoidance is done by the sufferer because they are shy and not confident. Actually they are eager for a close relationship, but they feel themselves unfit to mingle and are very worried about rejection.
- Obsessive compulsive personality disorder. People who experience this condition can be said to be ‘control freak’. They are difficult to work with others and prefer to organize or complete their own work. Due to their perfectionistic personalities, they are often stressed out when work results do not conform to their high standards. If the person with the disorder is a superior in the office, then he will not be able to delegate tasks to his subordinates and his desire to manage the situation and his employees will become more and more. Personality tend to be rigid and workaholic. Often they ignore friends and rarely engage in joint activities. They are more interested in taking care of the rules, details, schedules, and keeping an eye on order. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is different from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). OCPD sufferers can accept their behavior and do not see it as a deviation that needs to be changed. While OCD patients are aware that their behavior is not normal and anxious about it, though difficult for them to change it.
Causes of personality disorder
Cases of personality disorder generally begin in adolescence and when entering adulthood. There are several factors that are suspected to trigger or increase the risk of this condition, including:
- The presence of abnormalities in the structure or chemical composition in the brain.
- A history of personality disorder or other mental illness in the family.
- Spend a childhood in a chaotic family life.
- Feelings have been ignored since childhood.
- Experiencing abuse since childhood, both in verbal and physical form.
Low level of education.
- Living in the midst of difficult economy berekonomi.
Most experts argue that personality disorders are caused by a combination of unpleasant situations or backgrounds of life with genes that make up the emotions of a person who is inherited from their parents.
Diagnosis of personality disorder
To diagnose personality disorders, your doctor may suggest a psychological evaluation of how the patient thinks and acts, as well as the feelings they feel. Information about this can be obtained by the doctor by asking directly to the patient or through a questionnaire.
In addition to psychological evaluation, physical examination is also needed to determine whether the personality disorder of the patient is caused by poor physical health. In this case the doctor may ask what symptoms are felt by the patient or perform blood tests in the laboratory. For example, the thyroid gland function tests to determine whether the disorder suffered caused by it.
And one thing that is not less important is the examination of levels of alcohol or drugs in the patient’s body, because that’s probably what triggered the emergence of symptoms of personality disorder.
Treatment of personality disorders
The main way in dealing with personality disorders is through psychological or psychiatric therapy under psychiatric guidance with the aim of improving the patient’s ability to better control his emotions and thoughts. Drug use is recommended only when symptoms associated with personality disorders, such as psychotic symptoms, anxiety, and depression, have entered middle or severe levels. Some medications that may be used are mood stabilizers and serotonin release agents (antidepressants).
For psychological therapy itself there are various types. Some of the possible therapeutic methods used to treat personality disorders are:
- Cognitive behavioral therapy. This therapy aims to change the way patients think and act in a positive direction. This therapy is based on the theory that a person’s behavior is a manifestation of his way of thinking. That is, if the person’s mind is negative, then his behavior will be negative, and vice versa.
- Psychodynamic therapy. This therapy aims to explore and fix all forms of patient irregularities that have existed since childhood. This kind of condition is formed by negative experiences.
- Interpersonal therapy. This therapy is based on the theory that one’s mental health is strongly influenced by their interactions with others. This means that if the interaction is problematic, then the symptoms that are part of a personality disorder, such as anxiety, doubt, and not confident, can be formed. That’s why the main purpose of this therapy is to fix all kinds of problems that occur in the patient’s social interaction.