What is Hypogonadism?

What is Hypogonadism
What is Hypogonadism

What is Hypogonadism?

What is Hypogonadism? Hypogonadism is a form of hypogonadism that occurs because it is caused by problems of the pituitary / hypothalamus gland.

Hypogonadism is a condition when the sexual hormones produced by the sexual glands (in men called the testes and in women are called ovaries) are below normal numbers.

Sexual hormones have the function to regulate secondary sexual characteristics, including assisting sperm production and testicular development in men. While in women, this hormone plays a role in breast growth and menstrual cycle. In addition sex hormones also play a role in the growth of pubic hair, both in men and women.

Hypogonadism or lack of production of this sex hormone will of course cause problems. In men, symptoms that can occur include:

  • Abnormal breast growth
  • Tired
  • Difficult to concentrate
  • Reduced muscle mass
  • Arms and legs grow long or slender like a woman
  • Body rarely overgrown hair
  • Sound sounds less in a normal male
  • Penis and penis shrink
  • Loss of sexual arousal
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Barren
  • Body feels hot
  • Osteoporosis

the symptoms of hypogonadism that can occur in women include:

  • Breast growth is slow or even no breasts at all
  • Menstruation is less or does not occur at all
  • Decreased sexual arousal
  • Loss of feathers on the body
  • Changes in energy and mood
  • Body feels hot
  • The white fluorescent discharge from the breast

Causes of Hypogonadism

Based on the cause, hypogonadism is divided into two types, namely primary and secondary hypogonadism.

Primary hypogonadism occurs due to the gonads or the sexual glands are damaged. Although the brain sends signals to the gonads to produce sexual hormones, production remains unavailable due to this damage. Here are some causes of damage to the gonads, including:

  • Autoimmune diseases (eg hypoparathyroidism and Addison’s disease)
  • Kidney disorders
  • Liver disorders
  • Severe infection
  • Hemochromatosis or high blood levels of blood
  • Cryptorchidus or non-descending testicular position
  • Genetic diseases (eg Klinefelter’s syndrome and Turner’s syndrome)
  • Inflammation of the testes as a complication of mumps
  • Damage to sexual organs (eg due to accidents or side effects of surgery)
  • Side effects of radiation or chemotherapy on cancer treatment

The second type of hypogonadism is secondary hypogonadism which is the opposite of the primer. In secondary hypogonadism, the damage lies in the pituitary gland in the brain. As a result of this damage, the brain is unable to send signals to the gonads to produce sexual hormones. Here are some factors that can cause damage to the pituitary gland, including:

  • Genetic disorders, such as developmental disorders of the hypothalamus gland (Kallmann’s syndrome)
  • Pituitary disorders
  • Tumors that appear near the pituitary gland
  • HIV and AIDS
  • Histiocytosis
  • TB or tuberculosis disease
  • Sarcoidosis disease
  • Brain injury (eg due to accidents or side effects)
  • Obesity
  • Lack of nutrients and weight loss drastically
  • Side effects of radiation or chemotherapy on cancer treatment
  • Side effects of steroid use
  • Growing age

Diagnosis of Hypogonadism

It is advisable to see your doctor immediately if you have symptoms of hypogonadism. Some methods of examination that can be done by a doctor are:

  • Checking testosterone and estrogen levels
  • Checking levels of gonadotropin (LH and FSH)
  • Thyroid examination
  • Checking sperm levels
  • Checking levels of prolactin (female milk production hormone in women)
  • Ultrasound to determine the condition of the ovary
  • CT scan and MRI scan to see any problems with the brain
  • Checking levels of blood cells and iron
  • Genetic test

Treatment of Hypogonadism

In men, the treatment of hypogonadism is generally done through the replacement therapy of testosterone (TRT) by entering the artificial testosterone into the body to cover the deficiency of the hormone. Artificial testosterone can be given in the form of syringes, tablets, gels, or patches.

In addition to TRT, the treatment of hypogonadism can be done by injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in adolescents with delayed puberty or in adult men who have decreased sperm production.

In women, the treatment of hypogonadism is generally done through the administration of artificial hormone estrogen in the form of injections, pills, or patches. But this method of treatment is at risk of triggering endometrial cancer. To avoid this, usually giving estrogen will be combined with progesterone.

In women who are difficult to get pregnant, doctors will usually perform treatment aimed at triggering ovulation through the administration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or human choriogonadotropin (hCG) hormone injections. Both methods of this treatment can also be applied to people with hypogonadism who experience menstrual cycle disorders. Whereas in women who feel symptoms of decreased sexual arousal, doctors will usually perform low-dose testosterone therapy.

Treatment of Tumor hypogonadism

Hypogonadism due to tumors that grow in the pituitary gland can happen to anyone, both men and women. In patients suffering from this condition, the method of treatment usually done by the doctor is through surgical removal of tumor or chemotherapy and radiotherapy which aims to shrink and kill tumor cells.

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