What is Hematoma?
What is Hematoma? Hematoma is a collection of abnormal blood outside the blood vessels. This blood collection can be a small speckle, but can also be large and cause swelling.
Hematoma can occur in any part of the body. Blood that comes out of the blood vessels can cause pain in the surrounding tissues and symptoms of inflammation or inflamasi.
Symptoms of Hematoma
Symptoms are something that is felt and told by the patient. Symptoms of a hematoma depend on the location of the appearance, size, and whether the hematoma causes the appearance of swelling.
Hematoma will also cause irritation and inflammation. Some common symptoms of inflammation or inflammation due to hematoma are:
- Redness on the part of the body that appears hematoma.
- The emergence of the hematoma will be painful to the touch and feel warmer.
Causes and Risk Factors of Hematoma
Common causes of hematoma are trauma or injury. Trauma or injury that occurred can be caused by accidents, falls, head injuries, broken bones. Gunshot wounds, an overheated sneeze, or the dislocation of the arms and legs.
Some of the things that increase a person’s risk of hematoma are:
- Aneurysm, is an abnormal lump or dilation in the blood vessels.
- Treatment. Anticoagulant drugs or blood thinners may increase the potential for sudden hemorrhage or aggravate hematoma.
- Disease. Medical conditions or certain diseases that cause a decrease in platelet count or eliminate platelet function.
- Injury. Bone fractures always cause an increased risk of hematoma at the site of the crack.
- Fracture of the pelvis. It usually takes a big jerk to make the pelvic bone crack. So surely the surrounding tissues and blood vessels are damaged.
- Menstruation. Menstrual blood can gather in the vagina and can form blood clots instead of flowing out.
- Pregnancy and childbirth. Blood clots or bleeding from the vagina is not normal during pregnancy, so the patient should immediately see a doctor. But at the time after childbirth, this is normal.
Type of Hematoma
Often the hematoma is distinguished by location of occurrence. Some types of hematoma are:
- Epidural hematoma, is a hematoma arising from a head injury in which there is a central meningeal artery. Blood will gather in the epidural space, between the outside of the lining of the brain with the skull bone.
- Perianal hematoma, occurs at the outer perusal of the anus.
- Subdural hematoma, a hematoma arising from head injury. However, the injury occurs in the veins of the veins in the brain, so that blood leakage occurs slowly. Blood will accumulate in the wider subdural space (beneath the membrane of the brain) and take longer before the clot eventually suppresses the brain tissue.
- Intracerebral hematoma, occurs in the brain tissue itself. One of the causes is uncontrolled hypertension.
- Scalp hematoma, a hematoma that occurs outside the skull under the scalp and can sometimes be felt like a lump.
- The ear hematoma, arising from an injury that results in bleeding in the structure of the ear cartilage, just beneath the skin of the ear.
- Septum hematoma, occurs if a person has a nose injury. If not treated immediately, the cartilage will be damaged and the septum will tear.
- Intramuscular hematoma, occurs in muscle tissue. May cause stunted blood supply to the muscle so that the muscles and blood vessels around it can be permanently damaged.
- Subungual hematoma, usually the result of an injury to the fingers or toes. Blood will gather under the nail, causing pain.
- Subcutaneous hematoma, is bruised and bruised on the skin. This occurs due to injury to the blood vessels beneath the skin.
- Breast hematoma, blood gathering in the breast due to internal bleeding.
- Intra-abdominal hematoma, occurs in the abdomen. This can happen due to various injuries or certain medical conditions.
Diagnosis of Hematoma
Diagnosis is a doctor’s step to identify a disease or condition that explains the symptoms and signs experienced by the patient. Some steps that doctors do to diagnose hematoma are:
- Fiscal checks. If the hematoma occurs in the skin and soft tissues such as muscles or joints, the doctor will perform a physical examination.
- Imaging test. If the patient shows symptoms of internal bleeding, then the doctor will perform an imaging test, X-ray imaging is needed to check the hematoma around the cracked bone. While patients with head injury should be examined with a CT-scan. Ultrasonography is usually recommended when examining patients who are pregnant.
Treatment and Complications of Hematoma
Treatments for hematomas that appear on the skin and soft tissues are often treated simply by resting, compressing with ice cubes, dressing or pressing to stop bleeding, and elevation (lifting the organs higher than the heart to reduce blood flow to the bleeding areas). This technique is known as RICE / rest, ice, compression, elevation.
Some doctors also recommend running hot therapy as an alternative hematoma treatment three days after bleeding is overcome. The pain caused by inflammation around the hematoma, can be overcome with painkillers.
The type of hematoma handling is chosen based on the patient’s health condition. While treatment for hematoma in other organs in the body depends on the type of organs and conditions.
Hematomas can cause inflammation and swelling. Two things can cause some complications, namely:
- Irritation, on the organs and tissues of the body.
- Infection. The collected blood will colonize with bacteria.