What is Glaucoma of The Eye?
What is Glaucoma of The Eye? Glaucoma is a type of vision disorder characterized by the occurrence of damage to the optic nerve usually caused by the pressure inside the eye. The symptoms of glaucoma can be:
- Pain in the eye
- See the shadow of a circle around the light
- Eyes flushed
- Nausea or vomiting
- Foggy eye (especially in infants)
- The narrower vision can eventually see no object at all
According to the World Health Organization or WHO, glaucoma is the second largest cause of blindness worldwide after cataracts. In Indonesia alone, based on data obtained by the Ministry of Health, the prevalence of glaucoma patients in 2007 reached 4.6 per 1000 inhabitants.
Causes of glaucoma
The cause of glaucoma is increased pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure), either due to excessive production of eye fluid, as well as the obstruction of the liquid drainage. This pressure can damage the retinal nerve fibers or neural networks that line the back of the eye and the optic nerve that connects the eye to the brain as well. Until now, it is not clear why the production of eye fluids can be excessive or why the sewer can get clogged
The two most common types of glaucoma are closed-angle glaucoma and open-angle glaucoma.
Closed-angle glaucoma cases are more common in Asian countries. Under these conditions, the pressure occurring within the eye is caused by poor drainage due to the drain channel being blocked by the narrow angle between the cornea and the iris.
While in the case of open-angle glaucoma, the eye structure appears normal but there is a problem in the eye canal called trabecular meshwork. This problem causes the eye fluids can not flow properly.
In addition to the above two types of glaucoma, there is another type of glaucoma secondary glaucoma and congenital glaucoma. Secondary glaucoma is caused by inflammation of the middle layer of the eye (uveitis) or injury to the eye. While congenital glaucoma is caused by abnormalities in the eye (congenital condition). Congenital glaucoma is affected by children.
Diagnosis of glaucoma
Because glaucoma causes the optic nerve to be disturbed, then the diagnosis will be focused on it. The ophthalmologist will examine the patient’s vision through a dilated pupil. A procedure for checking eye pressure will also be done. This procedure is called tonometry. The doctor will also conduct a field test to check whether the patient’s peripheral vision has diminished.
Treatment of glaucoma
It is important to see your doctor immediately if you have a power loss that may be caused by glaucoma. Eye damage caused by glaucoma can not be treated or repaired. But the goal of treatment of this condition is to reduce intraocular pressure in the eye and prevent the spread of damage to the eye. In general, glaucoma can be treated with eye drops, drugs taken, laser therapy, and surgery.