What is Diabetes Type 1?
What is Diabetes Type 1? Diabetes Type 1 is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas (the salivary glands) does not produce enough insulin, or when the body does not effectively use insulin. While diabetes type 1 itself is a type of diabetes with low insulin production. Therefore, diabetes type 1 is also called insulin dependency diabetes, otherwise known as diabetes autoimmune disease with a cause that is not known for sure.
Blood sugar levels are usually controlled by the hormone insulin. If the body is less insulin, blood sugar levels will increase dramatically due to the buildup, this is called hyperglycemia. This is what happens when a person has diabetes type 1mellitus.
The cause of the lack of insulin production by the pancreas in type 1 diabetics is not known until now so can not be concluded how to prevent it. This type of diabetes can arise at any age, generally affecting patients under the age of 40, especially children (childhood-onset diabetic). Sometimes known as diabetes ‘teenagers’
Diabetes Type 1 Patients in Indonesia
By 2015, diabetics in Indonesia are estimated to reach 10 million people with an age range of 20-79 years (quoted from the International Diabetes Federation). However, only about half of them are aware of his condition.
Southeast Asia is one of the areas with high prevalence for diabetes type 1. In 2010, it is estimated that there are about 113,000 children under 15 who have diabetes type 1 with an estimated 18,000 new cases each year.
General Symptoms and Complications of Diabetes Type 1
Common symptoms of diabetes in early diseases, also known as classical symptoms in the medical community, are frequent urination (polyuria), often thirsty (polydipsia) and often hungry (polyphagia). These symptoms will develop and worsen with the uncontrolled blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) that damage tissues and organs, and complicate.
Without insulin, the sugar in the blood can not enter and be used by the cells of the body. Eventually the body will process fat and muscle into energy causing weight loss. This can lead to an acute condition called diabetic ketoacidosis, a condition in which the blood becomes too acidic and the occurrence of harmful dehydration.
High blood glucose levels can also cause damage to blood vessels, nerves, and organs. Therefore, diabetes can lead to a number of complications if not controlled properly. Increased blood sugar levels are not significant and does not trigger any symptoms can cause damage if it occurs in the long term.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes Type 1
Insulin dependence or diabetes type 1 includes diseases that can not be cured and can only be controlled. Early diagnosis of diabetes is very important so that treatment can be done so that high blood sugar levels of patients can be controlled. Treatment of diabetes aims to maintain the balance of blood sugar levels and control the symptoms to prevent possible complications.
Pancreatic organs in the body of type 1 diabetics do not produce insulin anymore so they must receive insulin supply from outside the body on a regular basis. They are also required to learn to adjust their doses with the food consumed, blood sugar levels, and activities performed.
The process of adjustment should be done in stages. Some types of insulin that can be used include:
- Long-acting insulin that can last a day.
- Short-acting insulin that can last up to eight hours.
- Fast-acting insulin that does not last long, but reacts quickly.
The way of treatment for diabetics can use a combination of the above types of insulin.
Transplantation of insulin-producing pancreatic cells (islet cells) may also help some people with diabetes type 1. In this process, islet cells from those taken from deceased donors will be incorporated into the pancreas of type 1 diabetics.
Islet transplantation is effective to reduce the risk of severe hypoglycemia attacks. Hypoglycemia is a condition in which blood sugar levels fall too low.This condition is as dangerous as blood sugar levels that are too high. However, despite the countries already implementing islet transplants, many diabetics are reluctant to take care of them because of the high risk.
A healthy and balanced diet and regular exercise can reduce blood sugar levels for diabetics. Quitting smoking can also reduce the risk of heart disease complications.