What is Diabetes Insipidus?
What is Diabetes Insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a fairly rare condition, with symptoms always feeling thirsty and at the same time frequent urination in large amounts. If very severe, the sufferer can urinate as much as 20 liters a day.
Diabetes insipidus itself is different from diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is a long-term disease characterized by blood sugar levels above normal. Diabetes insipidus, on the other hand is not associated with blood sugar levels.
Causes of Diabetes Insipidus
The occurrence of diabetes insipidus due to disruption of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) that regulate the amount of fluid in the body. This hormone is produced hypothalamus, a special tissue in the brain. This hormone is stored by the pituitary gland after it is produced by the hypothalamus.
The pituitary gland will secrete this antidiuretic hormone when the water content in the body is too low. ‘Antidiuretic’ means contrary to ‘diuresis’. ‘Diuresis’ itself means the production of urine. This antidiuretic hormone helps maintain water in the body by reducing the amount of fluid wasted through the kidney in the form of urine.
The cause of diabetes insipidus is the production of decreased antidiuretic hormones or when the kidneys are no longer responding as usual to antidiuretic hormones. As a result, the kidneys secrete too much fluid and can not produce dense urine. People who experience this condition will always feel thirsty and drink more for trying to compensate for the amount of fluid lost.
Diabetes insipidus itself is divided into two main types, namely:
- Cranial diabetes insipidus. This type of diabetes insipidus is the most common. Because the body does not have enough antidiuretic hormones from the hypothalamus. This condition can be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or to the pituitary gland. Damage that occurs can be caused by the occurrence of infection, surgery, brain injury, or brain tumors.
- Diabetic insipidus nefrogenik. This type of diabetes insipidus arises when the body has enough antidiuretic hormone to regulate the production of urine, but the kidney organ does not respond to it. This condition may be caused by impaired renal organ function or as a condition of heredity. Some drugs used to treat mental illness, such as lithium, can also cause this type of diabetes insipidus.
If you experience symptoms of diabetes insipidus, such as always feel thirsty and urinate more than usual, you should see a doctor immediately. Perhaps you are not diabetic insipidus, but it would be better to know the cause.
Adults urinate as much as 4-7 times a day, while small children do up to 10 times a day. This is because the bladder of children is smaller. The doctor will perform several tests to determine the exact cause and diagnosis of the condition experienced.
Treatment of Diabetes Insipidus
In cranial diabetes insipidus, treatment may not be necessary in mild cases. To compensate for the amount of liquid wasted, you need to consume more water. There is a drug that serves to mimic the role of an antidiuretic hormone called desmopressin. If necessary, you can take this medicine.
While in diabetes insipidus nefrogenik, the drug used to overcome it is thiazide diuretic. This drug serves to reduce the amount of urine produced by the kidney organs.
Complications of Diabetes Insipidus
The low amount of water or fluid in the body is called dehydration. This is one of the complications caused by diabetes insipidus. If the dehydration is mild enough, you can drink oralit to overcome it. But treatment at the hospital will be necessary if the dehydration is severe enough.