What is Cystic Fibrosis?
What is Cystic Fibrosis Disease? Cystic fibrosis disease is a genetic disease that causes the mucus in the body to become viscous and sticky, thereby blocking the channels in the body.
As a result of this blockage some organs, especially the lungs and the digestive system, are impaired and even damaged.
Some of the symptoms that can arise when these conditions affect the lungs are:
- Prolonged cough
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
Coughing occurs when the body attempts to clear the lungs from a thick mucus, and this symptom is the most common.
In addition to the above symptoms, lung infections are also susceptible to cystic fibrosis. This infection can become more severe and potentially infectious among fellow patients with cystic fibrosis due to bacterial proliferation.
In the digestive system, the pancreatic duct can also become blocked by the mucus. With the obstruction of the pancreas, then the digestive enzyme produced by the organ can not reach the intestines to help the process of digestion of food.
That is why people with cystic fibrosis who experience a disturbance in the digestive system will experience symptoms such as:
- Weight loss or even stunted growth due to undigested food so that people with nutritional deficiencies or malanutrisi.
- Stooly, oily, and strong-smelling stool texture.
- In newborns, cystic fibrosis may clog the process of early sewage or meconium which generally comes out on the first day or the second day of their birth.
Dark black dirt becomes difficult to pass through the intestine as the texture becomes more solid. This condition is called meconium ileus and its treatment can only be done through surgery.
In addition to meconium ileus, infants born with cystic fibrosis are also susceptible to symptoms of jaundice.
Other Cystic Fibrosis Symptoms
A person with cystic fibrosis or cystic fibrosis may also be susceptible to:
- Nasal infections, such as nasal polyps and sinusitis.
- Diabetes, due to the pancreas can not produce enough insulin.
- Infertility in men due to obstruction of the channel that carries sperm, as well as sterility in women due to disruption of menstrual cycle and thick fluid in the uterine wall.
- Urinary incontinence due to loss of automatic control of the bladder so that urine can seep out at any time.
- Liver disorders.
In each patient with cystic fibrosis, symptoms may vary, but most importantly you recognize the symptoms early on, especially with your child. Therefore, see a doctor if your child often has wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing and even sputum mixed with blood, fever, lung infections, fatigue during activity, and slow or static weight growth even have radius Percussion.
For those of you who have children with cystic fibrosis, see your doctor immediately if wheezing, coughing, or other symptoms are getting worse, especially to cause your child difficulty breathing.
Causes of Cystic Fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease or acquired by a person from a parent resulting from a genetic change. This genetic change affects the movement of water and salt in the body cells in charge of producing mucus so that the level of viscosity and adhesiveness of the mucus becomes very high.
These thick and sticky mucus then accumulate and clog the various channels in the body’s organs, such as the digestive system, the lungs, and other organs, which in turn cause inflammation and recurrent infections, as well as damage to the organs.
Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis
Diagnosis to determine the presence of cystic fibrosis can be done since the newborn. The goal is that treatment can be done as early as possible if this condition turned out to be diidap them.
One of the most common types of tests is the DNA sample test. In this method, damage to the genes plays a major role in causing cystic fibrosis to be examined. DNA samples can be taken from saliva or baby’s blood.
Another type of examination is a sweat sample test. Just like DNA testing, the purpose of this examination is to determine the presence of cystic fibrosis through the level of salt sweat. Sweat sample tests can usually be done when only one month old.
Examination of bacteria in saliva and scanning consisting of CT scan, MRI scan, and X-ray / X-ray scan can be done to determine the extent of lung damage.
In addition there is an examination of organ function to measure the health level of liver and pancreas. This method can also be used to detect the symptoms of diabetes and is usually performed regularly after the patient is ten years old.
The fourth type of advanced examination is the examination of lung function to find out how fast the patient breathes, the amount of air inhaled or exhaled, and how well the organs are in circulating oxygen to the blood.
The purpose of this follow-up examination is to determine the development of symptoms and control it so as not to get worse.
Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis
Actually cystic fibrosis or cystic fibrosis is a condition that can not be cured. Handling is done only to relieve symptoms, prevent the emergence of various complications and long-term infections are destructive, and help patients live activities in everyday life more easily.
The main treatment of cystic fibrosis is to use antibiotics to fight infections in the lungs. This form of antibiotic consumption varies, some are taken as capsules, pills, or syrups, but some are infused. Examples of antibiotic drugs for cystic fibrosis include tobramycin and ciprofloxacin.
In addition to antibiotics, doctors may also prescribe drugs to reduce inflammation, such as predisone or fluticasone into the class of cortocosteroids, cromolyn into the membrane stabilizer group, and ibuprofen into the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug classes.
Volume control drugs and reducing the viscosity of mucus in the lungs are also part of the treatment that is commonly prescribed for people with cystic fibrosis. Examples of these drugs are hypertonic saline or salt solution groups, as well as acetylcysteine that enter the mukolitic group. In addition to controlling mucus in the lungs, mukolitik also can reduce the level of viscosity of mucus in the intestine.
To widen the respiratory tract so that the breath is relieved and secrete mucus through cough, doctors may prescribe medicines, such as atrovent, entering the anticholinergic class, and salmeterol into the bronchodilator classes.
Other Cystic Fibrosis Handling Methods
In addition to drug consumption, the symptoms of cystic fibrosis or cystic fibrosis can also be treated through several therapies under the guidance of a physician, such as:
- Physiotherapy to clear mucus in the lungs.
- Respiratory cycle therapy.
- Oxygen therapy.
- Physical exercise and exercise therapy to maintain posture and mobilize the muscles and joints around the chest, shoulders, and back.
- Therapy changes the position so that mucus is easily released from the lungs. This technique is also called postural drainage.
Handling Cystic Fibrosis with Surgery
Treatment of cystic fibrosis or cystic fibrosis operating procedures are likely to be advised by a doctor if the symptoms that there is already more severe and can no longer be treated with drugs or other methods. In cases with symptoms of cystic fibriosis lungs stop functioning, lung transplant surgery may be the only the most effective way to extend the life of the patient, even though the operation itself are very risky.