What is Contact Dermatitis?
What is Contact Dermatitis? Contact dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin, characterized by a reddish itchy rash, arising from contact with a particular substance. Rashes that arise from inflammation are not contagious or dangerous, but can cause discomfort for the patient.
Contact dermatitis is part of eczema or eczema, where the skin may become reddened, dry and cracked. Contact dermatitis can occur in the skin on any part of the body, but generally contact dermatitis attacks the skin of the hands and face. In order for treatment to work successfully, patients should identify and avoid the cause of contact dermatitis in their skin.
Symptoms of Contact Dermatitis
Symptoms are something that is felt and told by the patient. In contact dermatitis, common symptoms in the patient’s skin are:
- Reddish rash.
- Itching is sometimes severe.
- Dry skin.
- Blisters blister.
- Feels pain when touched or pain appears.
- To a severe degree, contact dermatitis can lead to blistering of blisters and the formation of a brownish hard coating that covers the opening of blistering of the skin.
The severity of the rash that appears depends on several things, namely:
- Duration of skin exposure to contact dermatitis substances.
- Strength of substances that cause rash.
- Environmental factors such as air temperature, airflow and sweat due to gloves.
- Hereditary factors that affect a person’s body response when in contact with a particular substance.
Symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis usually appear approximately 48 hours.
While allergic contact dermatitis symptoms usually take several days to develop.
Sometimes, the skin affected by contact dermatitis can become infected. Skin signs to become infected include:
- The symptoms are felt increasingly severe.
- Discharge of pus from the skin.
- Increased pain.
- Feeling unwell.
Causes of Contact Dermatitis
The cause of contact dermatitis is the touch of skin with certain substances that cause irritation or trigger an allergic reaction. There are two types of contact dermatitis which are differentiated based on skin reactions to dermatitis-causing substances:
- Irritant contact dermatitis, occurs when the skin comes into contact with certain substances that damage the outer layer of the skin, causing skin redness, itching and pain or stinging sensation.
- Allergic contact dermatitis, occurs when the skin comes in contact with a substance that causes the immune system to react abnormally and attack healthy cells and tissues that cause inflamed skin and pain.
Some substances that can cause irritant contact dermatitis are:
- Soap and detergent.
- Antiseptic and antibacterial.
- Perfumes and preservatives in body care products or cosmetics.
- Engine lubricating oil.
- Acid and alkali solutions.
- Powder, or dust, or soil.
- Water containing chlorine or lime.
- Certain types of plants.
The risk of irritant contact dermatitis will increase if your field of work intersects directly with the above-mentioned materials. Some of the more risky jobs that cause these conditions are farmers, cooks, machine operators, workers in chemical plants, beauticians and cosmetologists, janitors, and others.
While some substances that can commonly cause allergic contact dermatitis are:
- Cosmetic ingredients such as preservatives, perfumes, nail polishers, hair dyes.
- Metals, such as nickel or cobalt on jewelry.
- Some topical medicines.
- Rubber, including latex.
- Textiles, especially dyes and resins contained therein.
- Powerful glue.
- Certain types of plants.
- Black hena and leather tattoos.
- Air-borne substances, such as aromatherapy and spray mosquito repellent.
- Skin products that react when exposed to sunlight, such as some types of sunscreen.
Diagnosis of Contact Dermatitis
Diagnosis is a doctor’s step to identify a disease or condition that explains the symptoms and signs experienced by the patient. Your doctor will usually seek out the source of contact dermatitis by asking your personal and family health history, allergy history, and your work. In addition, some of the examinations that the doctor will perform to diagnose contact dermatitis are:
- Physical examination. The doctor will see the appearance of skin suspected of contact dermatitis contact and learn the symptoms felt by the patient.
- Paste test. In this test the doctor will attach a paper containing some substances that cause allergies on the skin, to identify the substance causing the emergence of allergic contact dermatitis.
- ROAT test. In this examination the patient will be asked to attach a certain substance several times on the same skin twice a day for 5 to 10 days to see how the skin reacts.
Treatment and Complications of Contact Dermatitis
Treatment can help the patient to overcome contact dermatitis and relieve symptoms. There are several ways to deal with contact dermatitis:
- Avoid exposure to irritating substances and allergies in the skin. Patients are encouraged to find out what substance causes contact dermatitis.
- Use a skin moisturizer. This is done to reduce the risk of dry skin and protect the skin.
- Apply corticosteroid cream medicine. This type of drug is able to overcome the red skin, pain and inflammation caused by contact dermatitis.
- Consume corticosteroid tablets. This drug will be given if the patient has severe contact dermatitis, in which the area of skin is attacked is quite large.
- Immunosuppressant therapy. Provision of drugs to reduce inflammation by suppressing the body’s immune system.
- Phototherapy. The affected skin area is exposed to UV light to help restore its appearance. Typically, this technique is recommended by a dermatologist to improve the affected skin shape.
Use of any drug to treat contact dermatitis, it is recommended to follow the instructions on the package and from the doctor regarding the dosage and the rules.
In order not to aggravate the symptoms of contact dermatitis that appear, it is advisable to avoid scratching the rash or inflammation that occurs on your skin. Use loose clothing and have a soft texture to avoid excessive irritation. You can soak the affected skin with cold water sprinkled with baking soda.
If left untreated, contact dermatitis may cause the following complications:
- Skin itching and scaly chronic. This condition is commonly called neurodermatitis. If carded, then the skin will feel more itchy.
- Infection. If the patient’s condition is constantly scratching, then the rash on the skin will become wet. This is an ideal condition for the development of bacteria and fungi, and can cause infection.
Prevention of Contact Dermatitis
The best way to prevent contact dermatitis is to avoid touching or direct contact with allergens and irritants. If you can not avoid it, there are several ways to reduce the risk of contact dermatitis, namely:
- Diligently cleans the skin.
- Wear protective clothing or gloves, to reduce direct contact between the skin with allergens and irritants.
- Replace body care products. If the body care products used cause allergies or irritations.
- Take care of pets. Some pets can spread plant-causing substances easily.
- Use moisturizer.
- Changing diet program. Contact dermatitis may arise due to allergic to nickel substances present in some foods.