What is Bursitis?
What is Bursitis? Bursitis is an inflammation or swelling that occurs in the bursa, a bag containing a liquid lubricant located around the joint, and serves as a cushion to reduce friction and potentially occur irritation between the bones and tendons.
The main symptom of bursitis disease is the appearance of pain and redness around the inflamed area. This pain will usually increase when the body part is moved or pressed. In addition to pain, bursitis affected areas will also feel stiff and swollen.
Bursitis can occur in all parts of the body, but generally occurs in the hips, knees, elbows, and shoulders. To avoid it, always make sure to warm up before exercising and use a protective pad when kneeling.
Causes of Bursitis
There are three factors that often cause bursitis, among others:
- Injury. Occurs because of repetitive motion in muscles, joints, and tendons around the bursa. For example, repeatedly bending and straightening the elbow, lifting weights at risk of shoulders, running or running excessively at risk of ankle, and resting knees or elbows on tough surfaces.
- Accident. Occurs due to a fall or a collision. When the bursa is injured, the tissues in it are at risk of continuing irritation to inflammation and swelling.
- Bacterial infection. Usually occurs in people with low immune systems, such as alcoholism, HIV / AIDS, kidney disorders, diabetes, and chemotherapy side effects. Bacterial bursitis is called a septic bursitis. In addition to pain, patients with septic bursitis symptoms will experience additional symptoms of skin damage in areas that have inflammation, cellulitis or infection of the deep skin layer, and high fever to chills.
- Complications of a disease. Some diseases can cause a person to bursitis, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, and scleroderma.
Doctors may suspect a patient suffering from symptoms based bursitis, examination of the outer body that is experiencing pain, and physical activity performed.
If the patient has a fever, the doctor will take a liquid sample from the bursa and be investigated in the laboratory to find out whether bursitis is caused by bacterial infection or complications of uric acid. This fluid intake procedure is called aspiration.
If symptoms do not subside, there may be conditions other than bursitis that cause the symptoms. Examination to exclude other possible conditions may be performed by MRI scans to detect a tendon rupture, or with a blood test to detect diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Most bursitis cases do not require hospitalization. This condition can be cured through self-care at home. The duration of healing of this disease depends on the cause and location of the inflammation. Generally the symptoms of pain can disappear within a few weeks, but to cure the swelling can take longer.
To ease the pain, doctors will administer drugs such as ibuprofen or paracetamol. Diclofenac or naproxen can be used to relieve swelling and inflammation. For bursitis cases caused by bacterial infections, doctors will usually prescribe antibiotics, such as clarithromycin, erythromycin, and flucloxacillin.
In addition to drugs, there are some simple steps that can be done to relieve the swelling independently, including:
- Paste the ice bag on the bursitis area for 10-20 minutes, which is repeated every few hours.
- Does not stand for too long if bursitis occurs in the hips, knees, or ankles.
- Support the bursitis during sleep, for example with a cushion, to help reduce inflammation.
- Avoid sloping sleep with the position of the mattress surface directly on the affected part if bursitis occurs on one side of the body.
- Using a protective device on the swollen joint to avoid injuries that can aggravate conditions, such as a knee protector.
Treatment of Bursitis
In cases of severe bursitis, some actions that may be performed by a doctor are:
- Giving injections of corticosteroid medication. Corticosteroids are hormones that can relieve inflammation. These drugs are usually given if bursitis can no longer be treated with ordinary medication. Please note that corticosteroids should not be injected in areas inflamed more than three times within a year. In addition, this method can not be applied to cases of bursitis septic or bursitis caused by bacterial infection.
- Do aspirations. This is a method of stock fluid suction that aims to reduce pain and restore joint motion ability.
- Exchange lift operation. This surgical procedure is usually performed on septic bursitis that is not susceptible to antibiotic treatment.
Bursitis can be prevented in several ways, including:
- Warm up for at least six minutes before exercising.
- Rest regularly during physical activity involving repetitive motion in one part of the muscle.
- Doing exercises that can flex and strengthen muscles.
- Wear protective equipment, such as a knee shield or wearing shoes to suit everyday activities.
- Reduced weight because being overweight can also cause bursitis.