What is Bird Flu?
What is Bird Flu? Bird Flu is a type of influenza disease transmitted by birds to humans. Viruses that enter the human body will incubate first for 3-7 days before causing symptoms.
A person affected by bird flu will experience major symptoms, such as high fever, headache, muscle aches, runny nose, cough, and respiratory problems. But before the symptoms appear, there are also patients who first experience:
- Stomach ache
- Bleeding gums
- Nose bleeding
- Chest pain
Bird flu treatment should be done as soon as possible. Because if not, this disease is potentially cause complications that can endanger the lives of sufferers, such as:
- Acute respiratory failure syndrome.
- Multi-organ failure (eg, cardiac disorders, renal dysfunction, and pneumothorax or air-collection within the pleural cavity).
Bird Flu Causes
Bird flu virus originally spread only between birds only, whether wild birds or poultry farms (chicken, duck, geese, or birds chirping). Over time, the bird flu virus mutates into several derivatives that ultimately can infect humans. Some of these virus derivatives include H5N1, H7N7, H9N2, H5N6, H6N1, H7N9, and H10N8.
Of all the bird flu virus derivatives, up to now only two types have ever caused an outbreak with a large number of casualties, namely H5N1 and H7N9.
The H5N1 epidemic since 1997 has infected about 840 people worldwide with the number of deaths reaching 447 people. From these data, Indonesia is one of the countries worst affected by bird flu, along with Vietnam and Egypt.
While the H7N9 that plague since March of 2013, reportedly has infected 665 people and 229 of them died. Southeastern China is the largest area affected by the outbreak of this type of bird flu virus.
High-risk bird flu is contagious when you touch infected poultry, inhale dust from diseased poultry droppings, or eat meat / eggs uncooked until cooked. In addition, the same dangers also lurk when we visit poultry markets with poor hygiene levels or visit an area plagued by bird flu outbreaks.
Bird Flu Diagnosis
Immediately see a doctor if you experience symptoms, such as cough, fever, and pain throughout the body. Especially if the symptoms are felt after returning from areas that are stricken by bird flu outbreaks.
In addition to matching the symptoms felt by the patient with signs of bird flu, the doctor will also ask the patient if he often touch the poultry, never eat meat / eggs less mature birds, or interact closely with someone suffering from severe respiratory diseases.
If a doctor suspects a patient contracts bird flu, further laboratory tests need to be done to confirm it. This checks to check for the presence of viruses in the nasal or throat swabs of the patient. Another check that needs to be done is a chest examination using X-rays. Usually if the results of laboratory tests and X-ray is normal, then the possibility of patients not suffering from bird flu.
Bird Flu In Adults Treatment
Patients who have been shown to have bird flu will usually be treated separately (isolated) in the hospital to avoid transmission. In addition to being encouraged to drink plenty of fluids, eat healthy foods, rest, and take painkillers, doctors will also usually prescribe antiviral medicines to prevent the disease from progressing more severely. Provision of antiviral drugs also aims to prevent the occurrence of complications and make the patient’s life opportunities remain large.
Examples of antiviral drugs that can be given in cases of bird flu are oseltamivir and zanamivir. Oseltamivir is the drug of choice.
Actually these two drugs are intended to treat common cold and are very effective if its use does not exceed two days after symptoms appear. This drug can be given immediately after the patient tested positive for bird flu.
In addition to useful for treatment, oseltamivir and zanamivir can also be consumed as a bird flu prevention medication, especially given to the medical officers who deal with patients of this disease and to those whose daily activities close to the poultry.
Bird Flu Complications
One of the complications that can occur in cases of bird flu is pneumonia. Patients who experience this condition should usually be assisted with a hospital ventilator to help reduce breathing difficulties. In addition, the administration of antibiotic drugs should continue until the pneumonia heals.
Bird Flu Prevention
When bird flu outbreaks in Indonesia, the government made many efforts to overcome, among them by spraying (sterilization) to a number of farms or poultry market, to the destruction of millions of birds suspected of carrying bird flu virus.
The spread of bird flu virus is difficult to prevent. But apart from that, we must keep doing things that can reduce the risk of contracting.
Some simple examples are always keeping the hand hygiene, keeping the cage clean if we keep the poultry, making sure to consume cooked meat or poultry eggs, and not consuming wild poultry because we do not know any disease that may be in the body they.
Purchase poultry meat that has been cut in supermarkets or traditional markets that cleanliness is good. Meat ready to cook will minimize the risk of bird flu because we do not have to bother cutting, plucking the fur, or clean the contents of the stomach poultry. As much as possible avoid living poultry stalls in the market that cleanliness around the stall is not hygienic.
Always use a mask (cover your mouth and nose) when we are in public places. Although bird flu is rarely transmitted from human to human, but this step is no harm done as a preventive measure. If you live in a safe area of avian flu, avoid traveling to areas that are bird flu.
To increase the body’s resistance against influenza virus, try to regularly follow flu vaccination every year. If necessary, include also pneumococcal vaccination to keep yourself from complications of bird flu if at any time we contracted the condition.