What is Basal Cell Carcinoma?
What is Basal Cell Carcinoma? Basal cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that attacks basal cells, a cell type that serves to produce new cells that aims to replace dead skin cells. The basal cells lie beneath the epidermal layer.
Basal cell cancer generally occurs in areas of the skin that are often exposed to sunlight such as face and neck. The early signs of basal cell carcinoma can be identified by the emergence of small, shiny bumps. In addition to facial skin (especially the nose), this type of cancer can also attack the skin of the body, hands, and feet. Although basal cell tumors rarely spread to the skin in other parts of the body, this cancer can spread to other tissues or bone around it.
Symptoms of Basal Cell Carcinoma
Skin cancers are generally recognizable from lesions on the surface of the skin that constantly bleed and form a scab. But in basal cell carcinoma, the symptoms are also accompanied by the appearance of shiny white lumps with blood vessels seen in them. Over time, these bumps can bleed and produce a crust. Symptoms of basal cell carcinoma may also be brown or black scaly patches that may over time enlarge. Another symptom is a flat, skin-colored lump that enlarges over time.
Causes of Basal Cell Carcinoma
The main cause of basal cell carcinoma is the frequent exposure of ultraviolet rays to damaging DNA in it. The damage process can last for years. DNA has a code that regulates the growth of skin cells. When DNA breaks down, the growth of skin cells becomes uncontrollable.
Because basal cell carcinoma can be caused by ultraviolet light, then someone who is often exposed to direct sunlight and who often use a darkening of skin tanning (skin tanning) is very at risk of this disease.
In addition to the above factors, a number of other factors are also thought to increase the risk of someone exposed to basal cell carcinoma, including:
- Has a bright complexion.
- Have family with skin cancer (genetic).
- Inherited skin cancer-causing syndromes.
- Aged 50 years and over.
- Male sex.
- Exposure to radiation.
- Exposure to arsenic.
- Consume immune system suppressant drugs.
- Never had basal cell carcinoma.
Diagnosis of Basal Cell Carcinoma
In diagnosing basal cell carcinoma, the doctor will begin by observing the skin of the patient directly. If found signs of the condition, then the next doctor can do a biopsy or sampling of skin tissue to be investigated in the laboratory. The purpose of this biopsy is to ensure that the patient is exposed to skin cancer.
Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma
Treatment of this cancer will depend on the size, location, depth of cancer cells and general health of the patient. Here are some examples of treatment that can be done against basal cell carcinoma, including:
- Using a topical cream remedy.
- Photodynamic therapy (removal of cancer cells using light).
- Excision of tumor (cutting of the affected skin).
- Curettage and electrodesication (erosion of cancer cells, then extinguish the rest by using electricity).
- Mohs Surgery (cuts by layer of skin affected by cancer until microscopy showed no more cancer cells). Surgery that is also assisted by this microscope is usually applied to the skin of the face.
- Crysosurgery (destruction of cancer cells by frozen).
- Radiotherapy (destruction of cancer cells using radiation energy).
- Chemotherapy (destruction of cancer cells with a combination of drugs).
The use of drug cream, photodynamic therapy, excision, curettage and electrodesikasi, surgery Mohs, and cryosurgery is usually applied by doctors if the size of the cancer is not too large and is not too deep. In the case of cancer that has spread, chemotherapy is the most effective way. Chemotherapy is also applied when cancer can not be destroyed by surgery. As with chemotherapy, radiotherapy can be applied if cancer can not be treated surgically.