What is Angina Pain?
What is Angina Pain? Angina is a condition characterized by pain in the chest due to the lack of heart muscle blood supply. Disruption of this blood supply occurs due to the narrowing or hardening of the blood vessels. Angina attacks can occur suddenly.
Chest pain experienced by Angina sufferers possibly can spread up to the left arm, neck, jaw, and back. In addition to these symptoms, other Angina symptoms are:
- Hard to breathe.
- Body feels tired.
- Excessive sweating.
Although not all chest pain is associated with heart disease, you should still be vigilant. See a doctor if you suddenly feel chest pain, but have not been diagnosed with any heart problems. Although not all chest pain is caused by a heart condition, examining a doctor is the safest step.
Causes of Angina
In order to work properly, the heart requires adequate oxygen-rich blood intake. Blood for this organ will be channeled through two large vessels called coronary vessels. Sitting winds occur when the coronary arteries are narrowed.
Based on the things that can trigger constriction of coronary vessels, the sitting wind is divided into three types, namely:
- The Angina steady. Physical activity (such as exercise) is the trigger for this condition. When a person does exercise, his heart will need more blood intake. This intake will not be fulfilled if the coronary vessels experience blockage or constriction. Stable seated wind attacks can also be triggered by some other things, such as smoking, stress, overeating, and cold air.
- The Angina unstable. This condition can be triggered by fat deposits or blood clots that reduce or block the flow of blood to the heart. Unlike the Angina stable, the pain due to Angina unstable will still exist even though the patient is already rested and taking the drug. If left unchecked, an unstable wind seizure may develop into a heart attack.
- The Angina variant (Prinzmetal wind sits). In this case the heart arteries narrowed temporarily from spasm. The Angina variant can happen anytime, even when someone is resting. Symptoms are often severe. Temporary narrowing of the arteries causes the blood supply to the heart to decrease and pain arise. Even so, the symptoms of Angina variants can be appeased with drugs.
A number of factors can increase the risk of getting wind seated. Some of these factors include:
- High cholesterol. High cholesterol levels in the body of a person potentially accumulate in the blood vessels. If this happens, of course the blood will be difficult to flow into the heart.
- Have diabetes. High sugar levels due to diabetes, can damage artery walls. In addition, diabetes can also increase cholesterol levels in the body.
- Hypertension. If the blood flow is blocked, the heart will pump stronger and increase the pressure for the blood to flow. If this continues, the high pressure may damage the arterial wall or cause hardening of the vessel.
- Stress. When we experience stress, the body will produce a number of hormones that can narrow the blood vessels. In addition, stress can also increase blood pressure.
- Obesity. People who are obese will be susceptible to a number of conditions that can increase the risk of getting a sitting wind, such as diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol.
- Smoke. This activity can damage the arterial wall and cause the accumulation of cholesterol so that the blood will be difficult to carry oxygen to be circulated.
- History. If we have had heart disease or have a family that has such a history, then we will also be at high risk of a sitting wind.
- Less exercise. People who lack exercise are at increased risk of wind sitting because they are susceptible to obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes, which in turn increases the risk of developing angina.
- Age. Older people are more at risk of wind from sitting than young people because the blood vessels will harden and lose their flexibility with age. Especially for men, this increased risk starts at age 45 years, whereas in women starting at age 55 years.
Diagnosis of Angina
In diagnosing the Angina, most doctors will begin by asking about the symptoms experienced by the patient. In addition, the doctor will also ask if the patient has a family of heart disease or likes to do habits that can trigger the condition, such as eating fatty foods, smoking, or drinking hard.
To further strengthen the diagnosis, some simple checks can also be performed by doctors, including weight measurement, blood pressure measurement, and blood tests to determine levels of sugar, cholesterol, and kidney function. In addition to blood tests, kidney function can also be known through a urine test. Kidney-related conditions are important to detect because there are some sitting wind medications that should not be used by people with kidney disease.
In addition, here are further checks to confirm the diagnosis of Angina:
- Electrocardiogram (EKG). Through this test the electrical activity and heart rhythm are recorded with the help of electrodes connected to a special machine. From this recorded heartbeat pattern, doctors can see whether the patient’s blood flow has decreased or disrupted. In addition to the Angina, the electrocardiogram can also detect whether the patient has a heart attack.
- Echocardiogram. This test aims to identify problems associated with the sitting wind, such as the presence of heart muscle damage due to disruption of blood flow or the insufficient part of the heart to get blood supply. This identification is derived from an image generated through sound waves.
- Exercise Tolerance Test. This test aims to measure the heart’s resistance when we do physical activity before the symptoms of Angina appear. Physical activity can be a sport with a treadmill performed in the room. Cardiac endurance tests will be combined with an electrocardiogram to help doctors read the heart rhythm.
- Heart scintigraphy. This test can be done if the results of electrocardiogram readings are still doubtful. In a heart skintigraphy test, a special dye fluid will be injected into the blood vessels. These dyes will flow into the heart and are monitored using a gamma camera to see if the flow is interrupted.
- Angiography of coronary arteries. This test is done by using a special tool in the form of a thin tube inserted into a blood vessel. The goal is to find out whether the blood vessel is blocked and how severe the blockage is. Cardiac angiography is performed if the diagnosis of Angina can not be done in any way or if symptoms persist despite being treated. This test poses the risk of complications such as heart attack or stroke. Therefore, this procedure is only done if absolutely necessary.
- Blood test. Doctors will examine the presence of cardiac enzymes in the blood as a reference to the occurrence of damage to heart organ from heart attack.
- X-ray chest (rontgen). This method of examination is sometimes used by doctors to see if the symptoms are felt related to conditions other than the wind sitting. In addition, tests that produce images of heart and lungs are used by doctors to see the enlargement of the heart.
- CT heart scan. This examination aims to determine the presence and extent of severe constriction of the heart vessels and whether there is an enlarged heart that is not too visible from the results of X-Ray chest. A CT scan of the heart is performed with the help of a special tubular machine equipped with X-rays. From this examination will be obtained a picture of the patient’s heart condition in detail
Treatment of Angina
Treatment of Angina aimed at reducing the severity of symptoms and decreasing the risk of suffering from heart attack or death.
The Angina with mild or moderate symptoms can still be treated without medication, that is by living a healthy lifestyle and leave bad habits that can trigger the emergence of the Angina. Some of these are:
- Eat a nutritious diet that is balanced or contains lots of fiber, such as fruits, vegetables, and grains.
- Limit consumption of foods containing saturated fat.
- Do not eat more than the portion or calories needed by the body.
- Balance between physical activity performed with rest. It’s good to seek medical advice first about a safe sport for your condition.
- Avoid stress or handle stress if you experience it.
- Do a weight-loss program if you are obese.
- Avoid tobacco smoke.
- Limit alcohol consumption.
- Always control your blood sugar levels if you have diabetes.
If the Angina is not adequately treated with the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, then the doctor may prescribe some of the following medications to overcome while preventing the occurrence of later Angina:
- Nitrate drugs. In addition to being effective in dealing with the symptoms of Angina, nitrates can also be used as a long-term prevention method or used before carrying out activities that have the potential to cause a sitting breeze (eg exercise). This drug serves to relax the rigid blood vessels so that blood can flow smoothly to the heart. One of the most widely used nitrate drugs is glyceryl trinitrate. This medicine is able to relieve the symptoms of the Angina quickly. Do not consume alcohol during treatment with glyceryl trinitrate because it can aggravate the side effects that appear.
- Blood-prevention medications. This drug serves to separate the pieces of blood and prevent clumping. Some examples of drugs from this class are clopidogrel and ticagrelor.
- Calcium channel blockers. These drugs can smooth the flow of blood in the heart and relieve or prevent the symptoms of the Angina. Drugs also known as calcium antagonists are able to relax the muscle cells contained in the blood vessel wall.
- Nicorandil. This drug is a type of potassium channel activator, and is usually used by people who can not take calcium channel blockers. This drug serves to smooth the blood flow to the heart by widening the coronary arteries.
- Beta blockers. in relieving or preventing the symptoms of Angina, this drug works by counteracting the effects of the hormone adrenaline so that blood pressure decreases and the heart rhythm decreases. Thus, the heart burden will decrease.
- Ivabradine. This is a new generation drug with the same performance as beta blocking drugs. This drug can be an alternative if Angina sufferers can not take beta blocking drugs because of certain medical conditions, such as infections of the lungs.
- Ranolazine. This medicine can prevent the Angina by smoothening the blood flow and relax the heart muscles. Ranolazine is safe to use by patients who have irregular heart rhythms or have a history of heart attacks because these drugs do not affect heart rate.
- In addition to medications to cope with and prevent a sitting seas attack, your doctor may also prescribe some medications to prevent heart attacks and strokes, such as:
- Statins. This drug is able to lower cholesterol levels so that damage to blood vessels can be prevented. In addition, statins may also reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack. Statins work by blocking a cholesterol-producing enzyme found in the liver. Potential side effects of statins are abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation.
- Aspirin. This drug serves to reduce the level of blood clots so that the blood will easily flow through a narrow vessel once. In addition to overcoming the Angina Disease , aspirin can also reduce the risk of heart attack. Some of the side effects of aspirin use include nausea, indigestion, and gastric irritation.
- Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor) inhibitor. This drug serves to inhibit the activity of a hormone that can narrow the blood vessels. The hormone is called angiotensin. These drugs can also lower blood pressure. ACE inhibitors should not be used in sitting wind sufferers who have renal impairment because they can lower the blood supply to the organ.
If the symptoms Angina already severe and can no longer be overcome with drugs, surgery will be considered by the doctor in order to prevent the occurrence
heart attack. Some of these types of operations include:
- Bypass operation. This procedure aims to divert blood flow routes so as not to pass through the blocked or damaged blood vessels by using blood vessels from other body parts.
- Angioplasty surgery. Procedures aimed at streamlining blood flow are done by inserting a small balloon into a narrowing blood vessel, so that when the balloon is blown, the blood vessels widen. After that, a special wire will be used. The function of this wire to block the blood vessels to stay open.
Prevention of Angina
The precautionary measure of the Angina is almost similar to the initial wind treatment step sitting without the use of drugs, that is by applying a healthy lifestyle. In addition to preventing the occurrence of Angina attacks on people who have never experienced it, the adoption of a healthy lifestyle can also reduce the severity of the symptoms of wind sitting on the sufferer. Here are some steps you can take to prevent the wind from sitting, including:
- Exercising. You can do light exercise, such as casual cycling, walking, or swimming. In addition to losing weight, exercise can also make blood circulation becomes smooth and lower blood pressure, so the heart and coronary arteries remain healthy.
- Eat a heart-healthy diet. In order to keep working properly, you need food support. Healthy foods for the heart must be rich in fiber. You can get fiber needs through fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. In addition to fiber, foods that contain unsaturated fat are also healthy for the heart because unsaturated fats can help lower the blockage of blood vessels. Some examples of foods containing unsaturated fats are tuna, salmon, tofu, olive oil, almonds, and avocados.
- Avoid foods that are harmful to the heart. In order to avoid the Angina Disease, avoid foods that contain too much salt. The recommended salt dose for health is about one teaspoon per day. Too much salt consumption can trigger hypertension. In addition to salt, be aware of foods that contain saturated fat, such as offal, coconut milk, cheese, fried foods and butter. Saturated fats can settle in the arteries and inhibit blood circulation.
- Maintain weight. Healthy weight is important to maintain. Because if we are obese, the heart will be more difficult to circulate the blood so it must pump harder. Over time this can increase blood pressure and trigger a sitting breeze.
- Limit alcohol consumption. The content of calories in alcohol is very high. Therefore, excessive consumption of alcohol can lead to obesity and hypertension that can ultimately lead to the Angina.
- Quit smoking. Substances contained in the cigarette can inhibit the arteries and increase blood pressure. If that condition happens, you are not only at risk of Angina, but also at risk of stroke and heart attack.