Type 1 Diabetes Treatment For Adults
Diabetes can not be cured. Type 1 Diabetes Treatment aims to maintain the balance of blood sugar levels and control the symptoms to prevent possible complications.
Step Type 1 Diabetes Treatment with Insulin
Pancreatic organs in the body of type 1 diabetics are not able to produce insulin so that patients should receive insulin supply every day. There are several types of insulin that can be used. Among them:
- Fast-acting insulin whose effect does not last long, but reacts quickly.
- Short-acting insulin that can last a maximum effect of eight hours.
- Long-acting insulin that can last a maximum effect a day.
Type 1 Diabetes Treatment may use a combination of the above insulin types.
Insulin by injection
The most common way of insulin delivery is by injection. This method is chosen because if taken in tablet form, insulin will be digested in the stomach like food and can not get into the blood.
In the early stages of use, doctors will usually help you to inject insulin. Then you will be taught how to inject and store insulin and throw the needle safely.
There are two methods that are usually used to give insulin injections, namely through needles and syringes or pens. Diabetics generally require two to four injections per day.
Another alternative to injecting insulin is with an insulin pump. This insulin container is small. A small hose complete with a needle at the end will connect the pump to your body. The needle is generally inserted into the body through the stomach, but there are also put it through the hips, thighs, buttocks, or arms.
This pump will deliver insulin to the bloodstream at adjustable doses, so you will not have to do any more insulin shots. But you still need to be vigilant and monitor your blood sugar levels thoroughly to ensure you receive the proper dose of insulin.
Insulin pump is very practical and can be used by all people with type 1 diabetes, especially those who often have low sugar levels. This tool is also not widely used in Indonesia because of its expensive price.
Blood Sugar Level Monitoring
Keep your blood sugar level balanced
The main goal of diabetes treatment is to maintain a balance of glucose blood. You can do it with insulin treatment and a healthy diet, but to ensure normal blood sugar levels, you need regular blood sugar checks.
Some of the factors that can affect your blood sugar levels are:
- Frequency and intensity of exercise.
- Other diseases such as runny nose or cough.
- Taking other drugs.
- Consumption of alcoholic beverages.
- Changes in the amount of hormones during menstruation.
Examination of blood sugar itself can be done through a simple blood test with a small prick on the finger. This test is generally recommended for diabetics. You may need to do it four or more times a day. The type of insulin treatment you undergo will affect the required test frequency. The doctor will also explain about the ideal blood sugar levels.
Milligrams / deciliter (mg / dL) is the unit of blood glucose used in general in Indonesia. Therefore, you should be careful, make sure the unit first when buying a blood glucose test and know the value of referrals.
Examination of blood sugar levels regularly
In addition to your own daily monitoring, you are encouraged to take HbA1c test every 2-6 months. This process will show your blood sugar balance as well as the level of effectiveness of the type of treatment you are undergoing.
Methods of Handling Hyperglycemia
High blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) can occur for several reasons, such as excessive eating, underdeveloped health conditions, or insufficient doses of insulin. Adjustment of diet or dose of insulin will be needed diabetics who have hyperglycemia. Doctors can also help you to find the best adjustments.
Untreated hyperglycaemia can cause serious complications. The body will process fat and muscle as an alternative energy source, and increase the level of acid in the blood (diabetic ketoacidosis).
Diabetic ketoacidosis is very dangerous and can result in people experiencing dehydration, vomiting, loss of consciousness, even death. Therefore, people with diabetes who experience hyperglycemia should be treated immediately in the hospital. Patients also usually will be given infusion to increase body fluids, such as saline and potassium.
When your blood sugar level is too low, you will experience hypoglycemia. This condition can occur in all diabetics, but generally occurs in people with type 1 diabetes.
Some of the symptoms for mild hypoglycemia are weakness, tremor, and hunger.
This condition can be overcome by eating sweet foods or drinks, such as soft drinks (not the type of diet), sugar, or raisins. Pure glucose in tablet or liquid form can also be consumed to treat hypoglycemia rapidly.
Severe hypoglycemia will lead diabetics to feel dazed, drowsy, and even loss of consciousness. Patients with diabetes who experience this condition should be given a glucagon injection (a hormone that can increase blood sugar levels quickly) directly on the muscles or veins.
Loss of consciousness due to hypoglycemia means that hypoglycemia may recur again a few hours later. Therefore, take a break and make sure that someone is with you.
You will need immediate medical help and glucagon injections again if you remain drowsy or unwell for 10 minutes after receiving the first glucagon injection of the muscle.
Type 1 Diabetes Treatment with Islet Transplant
Islet transplantation may also help some people with type 1 diabetes. In this process, islet cells are obtained from deceased donors and transplanted into the pancreas of type 1 diabetics. Islet cells are a type of pancreatic cells that produce insulin.
Type 1 Diabetes Treatment with Pancreatic Transplant
Pancreatic transplantation can restore the body’s glucose control ability, especially for people with type 1 diabetes with conditions that are fluctuating or have unstable blood sugar levels. However, this procedure is high risk because it requires a more harmful immunosuppression process than insulin replacement therapy so it is only recommended along with or after a kidney transplant.
Other Drugs to Reduce the Risk of Complications
People with type 1 diabetes have a higher risk of developing complications, such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease. Therefore doctors may suggest the following medications to reduce the risks, such as:
- Statins to reduce high cholesterol levels.
- High blood pressure-lowering drugs.
- ACE inhibitor drugs, such as enalapril, lisinopril, or ramipril, if there are indications of diabetic kidney disease. The development of disease characterized by the presence of albumin protein in the urine can be controlled if treated promptly.
- Low-dose aspirin to prevent stroke.
In addition to medical treatment, applying a healthy lifestyle can also help in treating type 1 diabetes. For example by low-carbohydrate diet, enough exercise, and avoid stress.