What is Shoulder Dislocation?
A Shoulder dislocation is a condition in which the upper arm bone exits from its protective bowl. In some cases, surrounding tissues may be attracted to hard or tear.
The bullet joints on the shoulders are in a small protective socket (socket). This makes our shoulders move freely in all directions, but at the same time also makes its position becomes unstable so it is easy to experience dislocation.
Shoulder dislocations generally occur on the anterior (front), where most cases occur in elderly people who fall with the arm position away from the body (abduction). Under these conditions, the humerus head (long arm bone) is pulled forward so that it exits the glenohumeral joint (the joint between the shoulder and upper arm). This shoulder dislocation can also be accompanied by fractures of the humerus bone simultaneously.
In addition to the elderly, shoulder dislocation experienced by many men aged 20 who tend to be active in physical activity. This condition also often occurs in people who (eg in cases of joint hypermobility). .
To establish a diagnosis of shoulder dislocation, the doctor will usually start with a physical examination and perform an X-ray or x-ray examination. This is done to see the dislocations that occur, the possibility of fractures, or other shoulder joint damage.
In addition, the examination also aims to determine the treatment to be performed. Shoulder dislocation requires at least 3 to 4 months to fully recover after treatment.
Shoulder Dislocation Symptoms
The signs and symptoms of shoulder dislocation are mostly clearly visible. Symptoms include:
- Shoulders change shape. Shoulders tend to look more like boxes, not round as they should be.
- The presence of a lump or a protruding part of the upper arm bone or under the skin in front of the shoulder.
- A very strong pain.
- The joints can not be moved.
- Swelling or bruising.
- The shoulder muscles become tense (spasm). This can further add to the pain.
In addition, a shoulder dislocation may also cause areas around the point of injury (eg, arm and neck) to become weak, numb, or tingling.
Cause of Shoulder Dislocation
Dislocations on the shoulder can be caused by:
- Injuries during exercise (common in sports that are filled with physical contact, such as soccer and hockey).
- Injuries caused by traffic accidents that make the shoulder get a hard collision.
- Fall (eg falling from a ladder).
Treatment of Shoulder Dislocation
Treatment for shoulder dislocation can be done by:
- Closed reduction (shoulder position improvement). The doctor will help restore the shoulder bone to the proper position with slow motion. This is done by considering the level of pain and swelling experienced by the patient. If it feels very painful, it should be given sedatives or anesthesia before the repair position is done. Closed reduction can be done by several methods, including:
- Hypocratic method. Here the doctor will withdraw (traction) the arm with a 45-degree angle, then the shoulders will be rotated slowly until back to where it came from.
- The method of external rotation. Here the arm is attached to the body and bent to 90 degrees. The arm is then turned outwards slowly.
- Stimson Technique. The patient is laid on the stomach, then the patient’s arm is hung on the side of the bed, then a 2-10 kg load is attached to the elbow or wrist. Gravity causes reduction.
- Quick reduction. This method is performed in case of shoulder dislocation without fracture. This method can relieve pain quickly and does not require strong traction. The initial movement is to slightly away the arm from the body (abduction) and simultaneously turn the arm inward. Shoulder then mounted buffer (sling) to minimize movement.
- Operation. This action may be performed if the patient has a weak shoulder or ligament joint. Here the doctor will make a small wedge and insert the arthroscope (small hose equipped with camera and lamp).
- Drugs, Doctors will give painkillers or muscle relaxants so that patients feel comfortable when the shoulder is still in the process of healing.
- The booster will use a special buffer to keep the shoulder still. The length of use of a buffer depends on post-dislocation shoulder condition, usually about usually two to three weeks. But total shoulder recovery can take twelve to sixteen weeks.
- Rehabilitation. After the shoulder support is released, the rehabilitation program begins to restore the range of movement, strength, and stability of the shoulder joint. If a mild shoulder dislocation without tissue or nerve damage, restoration of the shoulder joint can be achieved within a few weeks.
In addition to treatment from doctors, several ways we can do independently to relieve pain and accelerate healing, including:
- Compress the shoulder with ice and warm compress. Compress the shoulder with a bag of ice to relieve swelling and pain. Do this ice for 15 to 20 minutes every two hours. After two or three days, compress the shoulders with warm water that can relax the sore or tense muscles. Limit this warm compress at most about 20 minutes.
- Taking painkillers. Drugs such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin, and, naproxen can help relieve pain. Follow the drug use guidelines and stop taking the drug after the pain is reduced.
- Rest your shoulders. Do not repeat the action that causes shoulder dislocation and avoid painful movements.
- Busting shoulder range of motion. During recovery, perform slow-motion exercises as directed by your physician or physical therapist to maintain shoulder stretching range and relax the stiff joint after a prolonged inactivity. Once the shoulder has recovered, keep practicing to maintain shoulder strength and stability, and prevent recurrence of dislocation.
Shoulder Dislocation Prevention
To avoid shoulder dislocation, follow these ways:
- Exercise regularly to maintain strength and flexibility of shoulder joints and muscles.
- Wear protective equipment during exercise involving physical contact.
- Be careful in moving to avoid falling.
Complications of Shoulder Dislocation
If left untreated, shoulder dislocation can lead to more severe complications, including:
- Muscles, ligaments, and tendons that strengthen the shoulder joints become torn.
- Damage to the nerves or blood vessels inside the shoulder and around the shoulder joint.
- Shoulders become unstable, especially after severe dislocations or recurrent dislocations. This makes the shoulder vulnerable to injury again.