Prostate Cancer Definition By Medical
Prostate cancer definition is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate gland. The prostate is a small gland in the male pelvis that is part of the reproductive system. The prostate is under the bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the channel that carries urine from the bladder to the penis.
The prostate helps produce fluids that nourish and protect sperm. When ejaculation occurs, the prostate secretes this fluid to the urethra. The released fluid will flow along with the sperm as semen.
There is prostate cancer that is aggressive and able to spread rapidly. But in general, prostate cancer grows slowly and does not spread.
According to WHO data, prostate cancer is the second most common cancer case in men. It is estimated that around 1.1 million men worldwide are diagnosed with prostate cancer and there are 307 thousand deaths in 2012. In Indonesia alone, prostate cancer ranks 5th as the most cancer, with 971 people in 2011. Men aged 70 to 79 years is the largest group who suffer from this disease.
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer may not cause any symptoms at an early stage. Symptoms of prostate cancer will appear when the prostate is too large or swollen and begins to affect the urethra. Some of the signs and symptoms that occur when this happens are:
- More frequent urination, especially at night
- Feel the pain or heat in the penis during urination or ejaculation
- Feeling the bladder is always full
- Blood in urine or semen
- Pressure when removing urine decreases
Usually, signs or symptoms of prostate cancer will appear when the cancer has spread out from the prostate. But the symptoms above are not always caused by prostate cancer. The condition above may be caused by urinary tract infections.
Until now, the cause of the emergence of prostate cancer is still unknown. But heredity or genetic factors and a person’s age can increase the risk of prostate cancer.
Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
There are many tests and checks to determine the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The most common tests for detecting prostate cancer are:
- Physical examination or rectal examination. This check is performed to check the size of the prostate gland.
- Blood test. This blood test is better known as the PSA test (prostate-specific antigen or prostate-specific antigen). But this test is not only specific to detect prostate cancer because PSA levels can also rise due to other conditions such as urinary tract inflammation or the prostate.
- Biopsy. Prostate tissue samples will be taken for inspection in the laboratory.
It is recommended that men consult a doctor for prostate cancer screening at age 40, 45 years, or 50 years. Screening is done by blood tests using prostate-specific antigen. Anal rectal examination will also be performed as part of screening.
Prostate Cancer Treatment
The earlier the prostate cancer is diagnosed, the greater the chances of the patient getting well. But if the cancer is still in its very early stages and does not cause any symptoms, the patient may choose to be alert to it. Treatment of prostate cancer is through surgical removal of the prostate and radiotherapy.
But if the cancer is detected when it has spread, for example to the bone, then the cancer can not be cured. Treatment is done only to extend the age and also relieve symptoms that appear.