Ovarian Cancer Diagnosis
The initial diagnosis is made based on the symptoms experienced, family health history, and physical examination results. Then investigation is performed to make the diagnosis, including ultrasound, blood test, or biopsy.
- Ultrasound examination (ultrasound) performed to examine the lower abdomen and reproductive organs. In this examination can be known form, size, and structure of the ovary.
- Blood tests performed to detect the presence of CA 125 protein in the blood. High levels of CA 125 may indicate ovarian cancer. But this test can not be a single benchmark because CA 125 is not a specific test, its levels may increase in other non-cancerous conditions, and not all ovarian cancer patients have elevated levels of CA 125 in the blood.
Ovarian Cancer Stage
If the results show a positive person suffering from ovarian cancer, the next step should be done is to determine the extent of cancer spread. In determining the rate of spread of ovarian cancer, the examination can be done with a CT or MRI scan, chest x-rays, as well as examination of fluid samples of the abdominal cavity and ovarian tissue.
Knowing the extent of cancer spread will help doctors to determine the best treatment steps.
In general, the rate of spread of ovarian cancer is divided into four stages, namely:
- Stage 1: Cancer only attacks one or both ovaries, but has not spread to other organs.
- Stage 2: The cancer has spread from the ovary to the tissues around the pelvis or uterus.
- Stage 3: The cancer has spread to the lining of the stomach, intestinal surface, and lymph nodes in the pelvis or stomach.
- Stage 4: Cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the kidneys, liver, and lungs.