Nosebleeds in Kids and Adults
Nosebleeds in Kids and Adults – Almost everyone has experienced nosebleeds. This condition tends to be frightening and causes panic, especially if it occurs in children or the elderly. Please note that nosebleed or epistaxis is a common condition and usually not life-threatening.
A nosebleed is a bleeding that occurs from the nose. Blood can come out of one or both nostrils with varying duration. Some are experiencing it for only a few seconds, and there’s more than 10 minutes.
There are several groups of people at higher risk for nosebleeds – children aged 2 to 10, elderly, pregnant women, people who frequently take blood-thinning medications (such as aspirin) and anticoagulants, and people with blood disorders, such as hemophilia .
Nosebleed Symptoms to Look Out for
This condition is generally harmless. However, you still need to be careful because the nosebleed may indicate the presence of certain diseases. Some indications and nosebleeds that you should watch out for include:
- A nosebleed lasting more than 30 minutes. If you experience it, you should get to the hospital immediately.
- Nosebleeds that occur in children under 2 years.
- Nosebleeds with a large volume of blood.
- Nosebleeds that occur after surgery in the nasal or sinus areas.
- Frequent nosebleeds in no time.
- Irregular heartbeat.
- Difficulty breathing.
- If you are taking blood-thinning medications such as aspirin or warfarin.
- Vomiting blood due to swallowing a lot of blood.
- Fever or experiencing rash.
- Nosebleeds that occur after you have injured.
- The skin turns pale.
- Nosebleed accompanied by bleeding from other parts of the body, for example in the urine.
If you or your child has any of these symptoms, you should contact your doctor or hospital immediately.
Types and Causes of Nosebleeds
The walls in our noses are full of fine blood vessels that lie close to the skin’s layers so they are easily damaged. Based on the location of the bleeding that occurs, the nosebleed is divided into two types, namely anterior or the front and posterior or the back.
More than 90 percent of cases of nosebleeds are an anterior type that is easily handled. In this type of nosebleeds, bleeding occurs from the front of the nose. This nosebleed is also commonly experienced by children.
Whereas in posterior type nosebleeds, bleeding comes from blood vessels located at the back of the nose (between the palate and nasal cavity). These rare nosebleeds tend to be more serious with more bleeding volume. The group of people who often experience it is adults and elderly.
Nosebleeds can be caused by various things. The trigger factors can be the use of drugs, heredity, until the disease. Some of them are:
- Ingestion process is too tight.
- Accidentally injured the wall of the nose when scratching the nose.
- The air was dry and cold. The dry inner lining of the nose makes it more vulnerable to injury and infection.
- The shape of the nose is bent, for example due to heredity or injury.
- Acute or chronic sinusitis.
- Use of certain drugs, such as aspirin, anticoagulants, or excessive breathing drugs.
- Irritation due to chemical compounds, eg ammonia.
- Nose injury.
- Use of illegal drugs, such as inhaling cocaine.
- Operation of the nose.
- Tumors in the nasal cavity.
- Abnormalities in blood clotting ability, such as hemophilia.
- Consumption of alcohol.
Nosebleed Treatment Method
In general, nosebleeds are self-managable conditions at home. Here are some simple ways you can do if you or your child has a nosebleed.
- Sit up straight and do not lie down. Sitting position will reduce the pressure on the nasal blood vessels that can stop the bleeding.
- Lean forward so that the blood comes out through the nose and does not enter the throat.
- Remove and dispose of blood flowing into the mouth. Swallowing blood can trigger a desire to vomit.
- Use your thumb and forefinger to squeeze the nose for about 10 minutes.
This step will put pressure on the source of the bleeding so that it stops the blood. Do not forget to breathe through the mouth.
- Place a cold compress at the base of the nose to slow the bleeding.
After the nosebleed stops, try not to blow your nose, bend, or do strenuous activity for at least 24 hours. This step can also prevent the occurrence of irritation of the nose.
If the nosebleed does not stop after 20 minutes, you should go to the hospital for medical treatment. Determination of this type of treatment depends on the cause of the nosebleed.
Operating procedures can also be an option if needed. Examples of procedures that can be an alternative are:
- Burning torn veins using nitrate or electric current.
- Clogging the nose with a cotton swab or gauze bandage so that the blood vessels can be pressed so that the nosebleed stops. Patients will usually be hospitalized for the condition to be monitored.
- A small operation to bind the blood vessels in the back of the bleeding nose.
Nosebleed Prevention Steps
Scars on the veins after nosebleeds can usually form a scab and make the nose feel uncomfortable. But do not scratch the scab because it can again trigger a nosebleed.
Nose is also generally more susceptible to irritation or infection after nosebleeds. Therefore, stay away from as much as possible from people with flu, cough, or runny nose. Avoiding cigarettes, liquor, and hot drinks can also help.
In addition to avoiding the recurrence of nosebleeds, there are a number of preventive measures that may be useful. These simple steps include:
- Be careful when picking your nose. Do not get too deep.
- Do not throw your nose too tight.
- Quit smoking. Cigarettes can reduce the moisture of the nose and increase the risk of nasal irritation.
- Use a nasal remedy in accordance with the dose on the package or doctor’s recommendation.
- Discuss with your doctor if you have had a nosebleed and should take anticoagulant medication.