Laryngitis Definition By Medical
Laryngitis definition is an inflammation that occurs in the larynx (the vocal cords within the throat). Common symptoms of laryngitis are sore throat, cough, fever, hoarseness, or even loss of sound.
In children with small respiratory tract structures, breathing difficulties may occur. Even so, it only happens in a few cases.
Symptoms of laryngitis can appear suddenly, then continue to deteriorate for two to three days, and recover within a week without treatment. Usually hoarseness and difficulty in sound are the last recovering symptoms compared to other laryngitis symptoms.
If the patient continues to feel symptoms for more than two weeks, it is advisable to see a doctor. Moreover, if symptoms get worse, especially become difficult breathing, then medical assistance should be done as soon as possible.
What causes laryngitis?
Occurrence of inflammation or swelling of the larynx can be caused by several factors, including:
- Damage to the vocal cords, because of the vibration of the organ that exceeds the limit of endurance, for example due to the patient shouting too loud or singing with a high voice. In addition, damage to the vocal cords can also occur due to prolonged cough and injury when the patient performs physical activity or due to an accident.
- Viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. A common virus that causes laryngitis is influenza virus. Of the bacterial class one of them is bacterial diphtheria disease. While the type of fungus is a Candida fungus that can also cause canker sores. Fungal and bacterial infections in laryngitis cases are less common than viral infections. Fungal infections are susceptible to people with weakened immune systems, such as due to side effects of corticosteroid drugs, chemotherapy or HIV / AIDS.
- Allergic reactions to a chemical or exposure to dust.
- The rise of stomach acid into the throat passes through the esophagus in the case of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). If the stomach acid reaches the throat then the risk for irritation of the larynx is high enough.
- It dries and irritates the larynx from smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Just like the GERD case, the chances of infection in the irritated larynx are also quite high.
- The use of inhaled corticosteroid drugs, usually a cure for asthma.
Based on the time span of the onset of symptoms, laryngitis is divided into two, namely:
- Short-term (acute) laryngitis. Usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection, as well as a straining vocal cords.
- Long-term laryngitis (chronic). Generally arise due to chronic sinusitis, allergic reactions, irritation of stomach acid, cigarette smoke, or liquor.
Diagnosis of Laryngitis
In diagnosing laryngitis, the doctor will first see the symptoms felt by the patient. The most easily detected symptom of laryngitis is a voice that turns hoarse or even disappears altogether.
Your doctor may advise your patient to have blood and sputum tests. Both types of testing are performed to check for the presence of viral, bacterial or fungal infections.
To ensure that irritation or damage to the vocal cords has occurred, laryngoscopy may be performed. This check uses an endoscopic device inserted through the mouth or nose of the patient. Endoscopy is a special tool shaped hose equipped with lights and a camera at the end. If at the time of laryngoscopy examination found inflammation of the vocal cords, biopsy can be done, ie tissue sampling to be examined in the laboratory to determine the basic cause of laryngitis.
Treatment of Laryngitis
In fact most cases of laryngitis can recover without the use of drugs within a period of up to one week. The goal of treatment is to speed healing and minimize disturbing symptoms, such as pain.
Here are some ways you can do to speed healing and relieve laryngitis symptoms:
- If you experience symptoms of a nagging headache or even a fever, take pain relievers such as ibuprofen or paracetamol.
- Arrange the humidity level at home by means of a humidifier or vaporizer, so that the air is inhaled into the nasal cavity and upper respiratory tract instead of dry air. Humidifier serves to blow cold mist into the air, while the vaporizer serves to suck the heat.
- Drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration. Avoid consuming drinks containing caffeine and alcohol.
- If the respiratory tract feels uncomfortable, you can relieve it by inhaling the inhaler containing menthol. In addition, consuming mint and gargle-rinse with warm salt water or a special mouthwash that can be purchased at pharmacies, can also help relieve the throat.
- To reduce the tension in the vocal cords that are experiencing inflammation and speed up the healing process, speak in a slow voice or if necessary do not speak first.
- Avoid exposure to dust.
- Do not smoke.
If the diagnosis finds that laryngitis is caused or triggered by certain conditions requiring special treatment, then medications can be given to overcome the underlying cause.
For example, if laryngitis occurs due to bacterial infection, then treatment with antibiotics. In allergies, antihistamines may be prescribed and advised to avoid sources of allergies, such as dust, food, or certain chemicals. If laryngitis is caused by GERD disease, then drugs that can be given are drugs to lower levels of stomach acid.
Prevention of Laryngitis
Here are some ways you can do to avoid laryngitis, including:
- Conduct flu vaccinations as scheduled by doctors each year.
- Limit consumption of alcoholic beverages and do not smoke.
- Increase drinking water for sputum in the throat to be dilute and easily removed.
- For people susceptible to laryngitis, avoid transmission of infection from others who are suffering from laryngitis or flu.
- Get used to wash hands before and after meals, or after using the restroom.
- Protect the nose and mouth from exposure to dust (wear mask) to avoid virus or bacteria causing laryngitis.
- If you are allergic to something, such as dust, a particular food or chemical substance, then avoid these things.
- In order for stomach acid does not rise to the throat, elevate a little head pad or pillow when sleeping. Do not lie down right after eating.
- Eat healthy foods for the throat that contain lots of vitamins A, C, and E (eg fruits, vegetables, or grains).
- Does not issue sound volume that exceeds the limits of vocal cords, such as shouting very loud or singing in high voices.