Immunization Meaning in Medical
Immunization meaning is an infectious disease prevention program implemented by administering vaccines so that people are immune or resistant to the disease. The immunization program starts from the age of infants hinggan enter school age. Through this program, children will be given a vaccine that contains certain types of bacteria or viruses that have been weakened or disabled to stimulate the immune system and form antibodies in their body. Antibodies formed after immunization are useful to protect the body from the attack of bacteria and viruses in the future.
Vaccine delivery methods in immunization vary, some are injected, put (dripped) into the mouth, or even sprayed into the mouth or nose. A number of vaccines are given only once in a lifetime and there is also a need to be given periodically so that the immune system is perfectly formed.
Newborns do have antibodies from their mothers received while still in the womb, but this immunity can last only a few weeks or months. After that, the baby will become susceptible to various types of diseases and need to start producing its own antibodies. By immunization, the child’s immune system will be ready for future infectious diseases, such as smallpox, measles, polio, tetanus, and mumps, according to the type of vaccine given. Immunization can also help prevent epidemics of infectious diseases as well as reduce spending because prevention costs are cheaper than medical expenses.
Side Effects of Immunization
Generally the side effects of immunization are mild, for example:
- Pain or scar is reddish in the injected part
- Missing appetite
For severe side effects (eg seizures and allergic reactions), rarely occur.
Consider again if you plan not to include children in the immunization program because the risk of side effects of vaccination itself is less than its lifetime benefit.
Types of Immunization Vaccines
The following are the types of vaccines recommended by the Indonesian Pediatric Association (IDAI) in the immunization program, including:
- Hepatitis B
- Hepatitis A
In Indonesia, hepatitis B vaccine, polio, BCG, DTP and measles are mandatory immunizations. While the rest is recommended vaccination.
Hepatitis B is one of the most dangerous liver infections caused by viruses through body fluids and blood. Provision of hepatitis B vaccine can be done first in children after birth. Furthermore, this vaccine can be re-given at the age of one month and third gift in the age range 3-6 months.
Common side effects of hepatitis B vaccine are fever and fatigue in children. While rare side effects are itching, skin becomes redness, and swelling of the face.
Polio is a viral disease that can cause paralysis, shortness of breath, and sometimes death. Provision of polio vaccine should be done in a series, namely when the new child was born and at the age of two, four, and six months. This vaccine can then be given back at the age of one and a half years, and the last at the age of five years.
The most common side effects of polio vaccine are fever and loss of appetite, while very rare side effects are allergic reactions such as itching, redness, swollen face to difficulty breathing or swallowing.
BCG vaccine is given to prevent tuberculosis or better known as tuberculosis. This disease is a serious disease that can be transmitted through close contact with people infected with TB, like living in the same house.
Provision of BCG vaccine is only done once, that is when the new child was born until the age of two months. The most common side effect of BCG vaccine is the emergence of a syringe injection on the skin, whereas a very rare side effect is an allergic reaction.
DTP vaccine is a type of joint vaccine. This vaccine is given to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Pertussis is better known as whooping cough.
Diphtheria is a dangerous disease that can cause shortness of breath, pneumonia, to heart problems and death. While tetanus is a seizure disease and stiff muscles are equally deadly. And the last is whooping cough or pertussis, which is a severe cough disease that can interfere with breathing. Just like diphtheria, whooping cough can also cause pneumonia, brain damage, even death.
Provision of DTP vaccine should be done five times, namely when the child aged:
- Two months
- Four months
- Six months
- One and a half year
- Five years
DTP vaccine is not licensed for children over seven, teenagers, or adults. However, a similar vaccine called Tdap can be given at the age of 12 years. The most common side effects of DTP vaccine are pain, fever, and nausea. Rare side effects are convulsions.
Measles is a viral disease that causes fever, runny nose, cough, sore throat, eye inflammation, and rash. Measles vaccine is given three times when the child is nine months, two years, and six years.
In addition to regular measles vaccine, there is an alternative choice of MMR vaccine which is a combination vaccine. This vaccine is a combination of measles, mumps and German measles vaccine
Mumps is a viral disease that causes swelling of the parotid gland below the ear. Other symptoms of mumps are fever, joint pain, and headache. German measles is a viral disease that can cause joint pain, runny nose, fever, swollen glands around the head and neck, as well as the appearance of a red rash on the skin.
MMR vaccine is administered twice, when the child is one year and three months old and when the child is 15-18 months with a minimum distance of 6 months with the measles vaccine. The second gift is given when the child is 6 years old. As a benchmark, measles immunization is given twice or MMR twice.
The most common side effects of MMR vaccine are fever and rare side effects are headache, purple rash on the skin, vomiting, pain in the hands or feet, and stiff neck.
There are many negative issues surrounding immunization, one of them is the issue of autism due to MMR vaccine. The issue is simply not true. There is no strong link between MMR immunization and autism.
Hib vaccine is given to prevent deadly infections caused by B-type haemophilus bacteria. Some severe conditions that can be caused by Hib virus are meningitis, pneumonia, septic arthritis, and pericarditis ( Inflammation of the heart bag).
Hib vaccine should be given four times, ie when the child is two months, four months, six months, and 18 months. Possible side effects after Hib vaccine is an allergic reaction of redness and itching.
Pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) is given to prevent pneumonia, meningitis, and septicemia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria.
Provision of this vaccine should be done in sequence, which is when children aged two, four, and six months. Furthermore, the vaccine can be re-done when children aged 12-15 months.
Side effects of PCV vaccine that can occur are swelling and redness of the injection site, followed by a mild fever.
Rotavirus vaccine is a type of vaccine to prevent diarrhea. Provision of this vaccine is done in sequential, which is when children aged 10 weeks and 6 weeks (maximum at the age of 6 months). The most common side effects of rotavirus vaccine are mild diarrhea. Effects on the baby can cause it to be more fussy.
Varicella vaccine is a vaccine to prevent chickenpox disease caused by varicella zoster virus. This vaccine is given to children aged one year and over. The vaccine is given twice if the child is over 13 years old with a distance of 4-8 weeks.
Adverse effects of varicella vaccine administration are commonly redness and pain in the injection site. And the less common side effect is skin rash.
HPV vaccine is given to adolescent girls to prevent cervical cancer or cervical cancer in most cases caused by human papillomavirus virus. HPV vaccine can be given since children aged 10 to 26 years. Adverse effects of HPV vaccine are common:
- Pain, swelling, itching, bruising, and red on the injected skin
- Hand and foot pain
While rare side effects are urticaria or biduran.
Hepatitis A vaccine is intended to prevent hepatitis A disease caused by viruses. This vaccine should be given twice from 2 years of age. The first and second injection should be 6 months or 12 months.
Common side effects of hepatitis A vaccine are fever and fatigue, whereas rare side effects include itching, coughing, headache, and nasal congestion.
Typhus vaccine is given to prevent typhoid fever caused by salmonella typhi bacteria. Symptoms of this disease include fever, diarrhea, and headache. If not treated promptly, the symptoms may worsen, and lead to various complications, such as intestinal infections and intestinal perforation (tearing) of the intestine.
Typhoid vaccine can be administered at the age of 2 years with the frequency of repetition every three years. The possible side effects of typhoid vaccine are:
- Pain, swelling, and red on the injected part
- Stomach ache
Influenza vaccine is given to prevent influenza viruses. Vaccination in children can be done since they are six months old with the frequency of repetition once every year. Side effects of influenza vaccine include fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, and headaches. While rare side effects are sneezing, shortness of breath, ear pain, and itching.