Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Definition By Medical
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Definition is an autoimmune disorder that affects platelets or platelets. This condition may cause a person to experience bruising or bleeding, and may occur excessively. Bleeding is caused by low platelet levels. Platelets are blood cells that help in blood clots to prevent and stop bleeding.
This condition can occur to adults and children. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in children usually occurs after viral infections and can be fully recovered without treatment or special treatment. Whereas in adults, Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura is usually a chronic or long-term disorder.
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura is an idiopathic condition or unknown cause / disease base. In terms of, here is an explanation of ITP.
- Idiopathic. Unknown basic cause.
- Thrombocytopenic. Platelet count below normal levels.
- Purpura. The rash is red-purple.
Treatment performed on ITP is highly dependent on the platelet count and age. Treatment may not be necessary when there are no signs of bleeding and platelet counts approaching normal. While in more serious cases, drugs will be given and may even require surgery for a fairly severe situation.
The symptoms of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
The following are the symptoms that arise due to idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura or ITP.
- Bruises easily appear or occur in many parts of the body.
- Bleeding from wounds lasts longer.
- Bleeding that occurs under the skin and looks like red-purple spots that occur on the feet.
- Bleeding from nose or nosebleed.
- Blood in urine or feces.
- Bleeding on the gums, especially after dental treatment.
- Excessive bleeding during menstruation.
Sometimes ITP does not cause symptoms at all, especially in children. When children suffer from ITP, their immune system mistakenly produces antibodies to platelets after viral or other bacterial infections. This condition is a reaction of the immune system that can occur for several weeks and eventually disappears. But in some cases, ITP can be chronic or sustainable.
Conditions That Cause of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Until now, the basic cause of ITP is still unknown. People who suffer from ITP have a false immune system and consequently attack the platelets and regard them as foreign substances from outside the body. The immune system produces antibodies attached to the platelets. Platelets become as if they are marked for destruction. As a result, the number of platelets in the body will decrease or become very low.
The normal platelet count in the bloodstream exceeds 150,000 platelets per microliter. Patients with ITP have platelets below 20,000 per microliter. The lower the platelet count, the risk of bleeding will increase. If platelet counts are below 10,000 per microliter, there may be deep bleeding in the absence of injury.
Although the cause of ITP can not be ascertained, several factors can increase the risk of developing ITP. Women are more prone to ITP than men. Generally children suffer from post-infected ITP of certain virus (eg measles).
Diagnosing Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
The diagnosis of ITP is done by ensuring that symptoms of bleeding or low platelet counts are not due to illness or other conditions. If no cause is found, it will be concluded that the patient has ITP. The procedures undertaken to diagnose ITP are:
- Complete blood test. This common blood test is useful for counting the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and blood platelets. Patients with ITP will have a normal number of red blood cells and white blood cells, but the platelet count becomes low.
- Physical tests and a complete medical history. Signs of whether there is bleeding under the skin will be examined by the doctor. In addition, doctors also ask about the history of the disease you have suffered and the types of drugs and supplements that you consume.
- Bone marrow examination. This procedure can also help in recognizing the causes of low platelet counts. Platelets are produced in the bone marrow. The usual procedure is a bone marrow biopsy or bone marrow aspiration. The tissue samples, both liquid and / or solid, are taken from the same bone marrow.
Step Treat Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura that occurs in children generally recovers by itself without the need for special handling. More or less, ITP will recover within six months and children with chronic ITP may recover more or less several years later.
For adults who suffer from mild ITP, there is no need for special treatment, but should be monitored regularly and routinely check the platelet count. If symptoms are disturbing enough and platelet levels are low enough, the doctor will suggest treatment. Treatment may involve medication or surgery if necessary. The goal of ITP treatment itself is to ensure a safe platelet count and prevent bleeding.
Here are some medicines to avoid when you suffer from ITP.
- Blood-thinning drugs.
The above drugs should be avoided because the effects of the drug can weaken the function of platelets in the human body. You should also avoid activities or sports that can increase the risk of injury accompanied by bleeding.
Here is a list of medicines usually given to treat ITP:
- Corticosteroids. This drug works to increase the number of platelets by suppressing the immune system. Drug consumption can be discontinued when platelet counts return to normal, but follow the doctor’s advice when to stop taking this drug. These drugs should not be taken for long term. Side effects of this drug are weight gain, high blood sugar levels, and osteoporosis.
- Throbopoietin receptor agonists. This drug works to increase platelet production by bone marrow.
- Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG). This drug works to increase the number of blood cells before surgery and stop the bleeding
- Biological therapy. An example of a biological drug is rituximab. This drug is given if corticosteroids can not help. This drug serves to reduce the activity of the immune system.
Operation on Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
If you suffer from ITP at a severe level and drugs no longer help in overcoming the symptoms that appear, it is necessary surgical removal of the spleen or splenectomy organs. This procedure works to increase the number of platelets in the body and eliminates the main source of platelet destruction in the body. But this procedure is rarely done because it increases the risk of infection in the absence of spleen in the body.
You need to discuss more about the advantages and disadvantages of each handling done.
Complications of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
The most frequent complications of ITP are bleeding. If bleeding occurs in the brain (intracranial hemorrhage), the effect can be deadly. While complications from chronic and severe ITP will appear as a result of treatment.
Although corticosteroids are quite effective in treating ITP, these drugs have the potential to cause harmful side effects if taken in the long term. Examples are osteoporosis, cataracts, and high sugar levels that can cause type 2 diabetes.
While splenectomy procedures that help prevent platelet loss will make you more susceptible to infection. The spleen is responsible for fighting the infection, so if the spleen is removed, you will lose one of the body’s natural functions in fighting the infection.
Patients who are pregnant ITP generally can undergo the process of pregnancy and childbirth is normal. However, if the platelet count is very low, excessive bleeding during childbirth is more risky. In addition, women with ITP also have the potential to have babies with low platelet counts as well. If this happens, the infant doctor will keep an eye on the baby for a few days. The number of baby platelets will decrease before finally rising again. However, if the number of platelet infants is still very low, treatment will be done to accelerate the return of platelet counts in infants.