Hyperthyroidism Meaning By Medical
Hyperthyroidism meaning is a condition when the levels of thyroxine hormone in the body are very high. Thyroxine hormone is produced by the thyroid gland, and plays a role in various metabolic processes. Therefore, disruption of this hormone will cause metabolic disorders of the body.
Hyperthyroidism is more likely to occur in women. This condition can arise at any age, including when still a child. But it usually appears when entering the age of 20-40 years.
Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism
The thyroid is a gland in the front of the neck that controls the metabolism and normal functions of the body, such as converting food into energy, regulating body temperature, and affecting heart rate, muscle, and bone. Acceleration of metabolism due to hyperthyroidism can cause various symptoms in the human body. Each patient can experience different severity, range, and frequency of symptoms.
Symptoms commonly found in people with hyperthyroidism are:
- Weight loss down for no apparent reason.
- Hyperactive. Patients become unstable and filled with feelings of anxiety.
- Easily angry and emotional.
- Insomnia or difficulty sleeping at night.
- Concentration decreases.
- Excessive sweating and sensitivity to hot temperatures.
- Libido decreases.
- Muscles feel weak.
- The menstrual cycle becomes irregular, infrequent, or stops at once.
- In people with diabetes, hyperthyroidism can cause thirst and very tired.
In addition there are also clinical signs or other symptoms that may be found in people with hyperthyroidism, among others:
- Enlargement of the thyroid gland that causes swelling of the neck.
- Rapid and / or irregular palpitations or heartbeat.
- Warm and moist skin.
- Twitch muscles.
- Tremor or tremor.
- The emergence of biduran (urticaria) or rash.
- Hair loss unevenly.
- The palms are reddish.
- The structure of the nail is loosened.
Initially the symptoms that appear may be mild, but when the levels of thyroxine in the blood increases, the symptoms will get worse.
In the event of symptoms such as dizziness, shortness of breath, rapid and irregular heartbeat, or loss of consciousness, it is advisable to see a doctor or the nearest hospital for immediate treatment.
Causes of Hyperthyroidism
The thyroid gland produces two types of hormones, namely triiodothiroin (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Each hormone works to regulate the cell and how the body works. Generally, the thyroid gland will produce the right amount of hormone. But under certain conditions, hormone production can be done excessively, especially thyroxine (T4).
The amount of thyroxine hormone produced by the thyroid gland in the body can be caused by various things, such as Graves’ disease, amiodarone, iodine supplement, thyroid nodule, thyroid cancer, thyroiditis, pregnancy or hyposisis adenoma tumor. The following is an explanation of each of the conditions that can cause the thyroid gland to be very active producing thyroxine hormone:
- Graves ‘disease Hyperthyroidism is mostly caused by Graves’ disease, a condition that occurs due to an autoimmune system disorder that affects the body and increases the production of thyroxine hormones in the thyroid gland. Graves’ disease can occur at any age, especially in women aged 20-40. Not yet known what conditions cause autoimmune abnormalities occur, but environmental factors and heredity considered to play a role in the emergence of this disorder. In addition to hyperthyroidism, Graves’ disease can also lead to uncomfortable and blurred vision. It is marked with eyeballs that look protruding out.
- Thyroiditis Thyroiditis is an inflammation of the thyroid gland caused by a bacterial infection, a virus, or when the body produces antibodies that can damage the thyroid gland. This damage can lead to leakage of thyroxine hormone which eventually leads to hyperthyroidism.
- Thyroid nodules Thyroid nodules are clots that form in the thyroid gland without any obvious cause. Although it is benign and does not cause cancer, nodules may contain abnormal thyroid tissue. These clumps have an impact on increased production of thyroxine in the body and result in hyperthyroidism, especially in people aged over 60 years.
- Drug side effects – To produce the hormone thyroxine, the thyroid gland requires iodine contained in the food. The hormone thyroxine will become too much and eventually cause hyperthyroidism if someone is taking iodine supplements or drugs containing the substance (eg amiodarone).
Amiodarone is a drug used to treat irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias).
Generally, hyperthyroidism will improve when treatment is stopped. However, the process of decreasing hormone levels will take several months.
- Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer is very rare. If cells that experience malignancy begin to produce many thyroxine hormones, then the sufferer may experience hyperthyroidism. This condition generally affects patients aged 30 years and over and can be recovered.
- Pregnancy During pregnancy, women experience elevated levels of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone. This hormone can trigger the occurrence of hyperthyroidism, especially in twin pregnancies and in cases of wine pregnancy, where there is high hCG levels.
- Adenoma tumors in the pituitary gland This is a benign tumor that grows in the pituitary or pitutary gland, the gland located at the base of the brain. These tumors can affect the production level of the thyroid hormone.
In addition to gender and heredity, there are other factors that can increase a person’s risk of hyperthyroidism. Someone who has autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes and Addison’s disease, are at greater risk of developing this condition. Smokers will also be at risk for Graves’ disease that indirectly increases the risk of hyperthyroidism.
Diagnosis of Hyperthyroidism
To confirm the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, the doctor will inquire about the patient’s health history as well as the family, perform a physical examination, and some additional checks. Here are some possible checks:
Examination of thyroid function
Examination of thyroid function is a blood test performed to determine the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and hormone levels produced by the thyroid gland, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
The function of thyroid gland stimulating hormone or TSH is to control the production of thyroxine and triiodothyronine. In patients with hyperthyroidism, TSH levels are generally low, while levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine are high.
Sometimes, these results show low levels of TSH, but hormone levels produced by the thyroid gland remain normal. The condition is known as subclinical hyperthyroidism. These conditions are not always marked symptoms and need to be monitored continuously to avoid the risk of bone or heart disease. Subclinical hyperthyroidism usually recovers by itself in about two months. Although there is no need for treatment, patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism should have regular thyroid function checks, to monitor their condition.
In addition to thyroid function checks, blood sedimentation (LED) rate check is also common to check how fast the red blood cells settle at the bottom of the test tube. If red blood cells settle quickly, then there is the possibility of inflammation of the thyroid gland.
If necessary, support checks such as checking triglyceride and cholesterol levels can also be performed
Thyroid isotopic imaging (thyroid scan)
Follow-up examination will be performed after the patient has hyperthyroidism. This examination aims to determine what conditions underlie the occurrence of hyperthyroidism.
In thyroid scan imaging, patients are required to ingest a material containing radioactive substances, with very low intensity, so as not to harm the body. The most commonly used is radioactive iodine. After that, a scan is done to find out how many radium isotopes are absorbed by the thyroid gland, as well as to see the glandular form.
If the isotopes absorbed by the thyroid gland are low enough, then the underlying conditions may be thyroidoidism (thyroid gland inflammation), high iodine intake, or thyroid cancer. But if the thyroid gland absorbs many isotopes, chances are that the cause of hyperthyroidism is a thyroid nodule or Graves’ disease.
If necessary, scans such as CT scan, MRI, and ultrasound are performed, to determine the size and thickness of the thyroid gland, as well as the risk of tumors.
Treatment of Hyperthyroidism
Treatment given to people with hyperthyroidism depends on the age factor, symptoms experienced, and hormone levels produced by the thyroid gland in the blood. Below are the types of treatments that are usually recommended for treating hyperthyroidism, including:
- Thionamide Thionamide is a group of drugs used to suppress the production of thyroxine and triiodotironin hormones. Examples of thionamide drugs are carbimazole and propylthiouracil. This drug needs to be consumed about 1-2 months to be seen its effectiveness against hyperthyroidism.
Thionamide dose will be slowly decreased after hormone production by the thyroid gland begins to be under control. Possible side effects include dizziness, nausea, joint pain, abdominal pain and an itchy skin rash. The risk of experiencing hypothyroidism (less active thyroid gland) due to this treatment is smaller than radiotherapy. Be sure to routinely monitor the levels of white blood cells while taking these medications.
- Radiotherapy Radioiodine is a type of radiotherapy procedure to treat hyperthyroidism. The hormone produced by the thyroid gland will decrease when radioactive iodine (low level and harmless) shrinks the thyroid gland. The treatment of radioiodine may be either liquid or capsule.
Treatment with radioactive material is not recommended for:
- Women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy.
- People with eye disorders, such as blurred vision and prominent eyeballs.
After undergoing radioiodine treatment, a woman should not get pregnant at least six months after the treatment ends. And for men, should not impregnate women at least four months after the treatment of radioiodine. Avoid contact with pregnant women or children during the first week of treatment to avoid transmission of radiation exposure.
The dose of treatment with radioiodine is given only once. If necessary, follow-up treatment is given after the first dose with a gap of about 6 months to 1 year. To speed up the recovery of symptoms, thionamide will be given several weeks before the patient performs radioiodine treatment.
The advantage of treatment with radioiodine is its very high success rate. While the drawback is the risk of hypothyroidism (less active thyroid gland) characterized by symptoms of mouth or dry eyes, sore throat, and changes in taste in the mouth. It is recommended to use this medicine in the short term to reduce the danger of radiation exposure.
Beta-blockers Beta-blockers or beta-blockers are drugs used to treat symptoms arising from hyperthyroidism, such as hyperactivity, rapid heartbeat, and tremor. This drug should not be consumed by people with asthma.
Beta-blockers are given after the production of thyroid gland hormones can be controlled with thionamide. The most common side effects of this drug are nausea, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, dizziness, legs and shivering hands, insomnia, and always feel tired.
Thyroid surgery Surgical removal of the thyroid gland or thyroidectomy may be partial or total. Called partial if only part of the gland tissue is removed, and total if all removed. Here are some reasons for the need for surgical removal of the thyroid gland, namely:
- If hyperthyroidism reappears after previously undergoing treatment with thionamide.
- There is a severe swelling of the thyroid gland.
- Radioiodine treatment is not possible because it is pregnant or breastfeeding, and can not and / or does not want to go through a thionamide treatment procedure.
- Patients suffer from severe eye symptoms from Graves’ disease.
To eliminate the possibility of recurrence or reappearance, it is advisable to remove all of the existing thyroid gland. Those who underwent total thyroidectomy surgery were required to take life-long drugs to cope with the loss of thyroid gland function in the body.
Treatment During Treatment
There are several ways that can be done at home to support doctor’s treatment, such as:
- Follow the doctor’s recommended diet
- Eat enough calcium and vitamin D
- Maintain caloric intake
- Maintain weight and avoid obesity
For people with Graves’ disease, here are ways to relieve symptoms that appear on the skin or eyes:
- Use sunglasses to avoid heat or strong winds
- Compress the eye with cold water to moisten it
- Drips of tear drops as an eye lubricant to suppress the itching or dryness in the eyes
- Raise the head of the body to reduce pressure on the eyes
- Using topical creams such as hydrocortisone to reduce the symptoms of redness and inflammation of the skin.
Complications Due Hyperthyroidism
A person with hyperthyroidism is at risk of complications if the condition is not treated. Here are some of the possible complications:
- Ophthalmopathic Graves. This eye disorder is caused by Graves’ disease. Symptoms that can arise include dry eyes or excessive tears, blurred vision, puffy eyes, and excessive sensitivity to light.
- Miscarriage and preeclampsia. Pregnant women with a history of Graves disease or those with hyperthyroidism are at increased risk for complications such as miscarriage, preeclampsia and eclampsia (pregnancy spasms), premature birth, and low birth weight infants.
- Hypothyroidism. The impact of treatment on hyperthyroidism is the thyroid gland producing too little thyroxine and triiodotironin hormones. As a result, hypothyroidism develops. Some of the symptoms of hypothyroidism are excessive fatigue, constipation, sensitivity to cold, depression, and weight gain.
- Thyroid storm (thyroid storm). This is the condition of the emergence of severe and sudden symptoms due to the metabolic system that runs too fast. This can happen when hyperthyroidism is not treated or undiagnosed. In addition, thyroid storm can occur due to several things, such as infection, pregnancy, not taking the drug as directed by a doctor, and thyroid gland damage due to injury to the neck. Thyroid storm is an emergency condition that requires immediate medical treatment. Some of the symptoms include chest pain, diarrhea, fever, chills, fears of fear and confusion, yellowing of the skin and eyeballs.
- Cardiac disorders, such as rapid heart rate, heart rhythm abnormalities, and heart failure.
- Osteoporosis or brittle bones. Bone strength depends on the amount of calcium and other minerals in it. The body will have difficulty entering the calcium into the bone when disturbed by the amount of hormone produced by the thyroid gland.