Hyperparathyroidism Definition By Medical
Hyperparathyroidism definition is a condition when the parathyroid gland located in the neck produces too much parathyroid hormone. High levels of parathyroid hormone also contributes to increased blood levels of calcium, but on the other hand, phosphorus levels fall.
Hyperparathyroidism is a rare type of hormonal disorder that occurs. Women are more at risk of developing this condition as they age than men. Women who have entered menopause are the group that most often suffer from this condition.
Actually hyperparathyroidism itself rarely causes symptoms in people who experience it. Symptoms usually arise due to increased levels of calcium in the blood. These symptoms include fatigue, muscle weakness, seem a little confused, lost concentration, loss of appetite, always feel thirsty, frequent urination, constipation, nausea, and abdominal pain. In addition, symptoms of depression can also occur.
If you experience any of these symptoms, see your doctor immediately. Increased levels of neglected or untreated calcium can lead to continued symptoms, such as frequent drowsiness, increased confusion, dehydration, vomiting, bone pain, hypertension, irregular heartbeat, and muscle spasm. Even in severe cases, this condition can cause fainting and coma.
Causes of Hyperparathyroidism
Based on the cause, hyperparathyroidism is divided into two types, namely primary and secondary.
- Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when there are other conditions that directly attack the parathyroid gland so that the gland becomes swollen and becomes overactive. These conditions include hyperplasia, benign tumors of the parathyroid glands, and cancer of the parathyroid glands.
- While secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs along with other conditions that cause the level of calcium in the blood decreases prolonged. As a result, the parathyroid gland is stimulated to continually produce parathyroid hormone. These conditions include chronic kidney disease, impaired absorption disorders, and vitamin D deficiency.
Diagnosis of Hyperparathyroidism
Hyperparathyroidism can generally be diagnosed through routine blood tests. The results of these tests showed high levels of calcium. To confirm the diagnosis, usually additional blood tests will be performed by the doctor. Through this method, elevated alkaline phosphatase levels and decreased phosphorus levels will also be checked.
In addition through blood tests, high calcium levels can also be detected through urine examination. This method can also be done to measure the severity of hyperparathyroidism. In addition, the damage that may have been about the kidneys can be detected through this test.If doctors suspect hyperparathyroidism causes kidney damage, then in addition to urine examination, X-ray examination can also be done to confirm it.
Treatment of Hyperparathyroidism
In the first step of treatment, doctors usually recommend to wait and see the condition of the patient for some time. This is especially true if the levels of calcium increase only slightly, there is no damage to the kidneys, and no other symptoms need to be treated.
Treatment of hyperparathyroidism depends on the type. In the case of primary hyperparathyroidism in which most cases are caused by benign tumors of adenoma, the most effective treatment is through surgical removal of the tumor from the parathyroid glands. In addition, doctors will also occasionally administer calcium-lowering drugs called bisphosphonates via infusion.
If you are primary hyperparathyroidism, it does not mean you should avoid foods that contain calcium completely. What you should avoid are foods high in calcium. Not consuming calcium can actually cause bones to have calcium deficiency and eventually trigger osteoporosis. In addition, you are also encouraged to drink water in sufficient quantities so that the body is not dehydrated.
Whereas in the case of secondary hyperparathyroidism, treatment will be focused on the underlying condition. For example, if hyperparathyroidism is due to kidney disease previously suffered by the patient, the doctor will focus on treating the kidney disease.