Human Papillomavirus Definition By Medical
Human papillomavirus definition is a virus that can cause the growth of warts in various parts of the body. This virus lives on skin cells and has more than 100 species. There are about 60 types of HPV causes warts that usually infect parts of the body such as the feet and hands, while 40 others trigger the appearance of genital warts.
Not all HPV can cause cancer. But there are several types of HPV are dangerous, such as HPV 16 and HPV 18, potentially triggering the occurrence of cervical cancer. WHO (World Health Organization) estimates that about 70% of cervical cancers are caused by both types of HPV.
Currently, there are two types of HPV vaccine that has been distributed throughout the world, including Indonesia. This type of bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing HPV infection, including preventing the incidence of cervical cancer. Therefore, HPV vaccination is highly recommended for teenage girls, especially ages 9-14 years.
How to Transmit HPV
Most HPV transmission occurs due to direct skin contact to the skin with the person. Similarly, objects contaminated with the HPV virus.
Sexual intercourse also includes one means of transmission of this virus on the genitals. For example through direct contact with genital skin, mucous membranes, fluid exchange, and oral or anal sex.
Symptoms and Types of HPV-induced Warts
HPV tends to cause no symptoms so rarely recognized by the person. Our immune system will also usually eradicate HPV infection before it causes symptoms so it does not require treatment.
But if our body does not successfully eradicate it, HPV infection with certain types of potentially cause cervical cancer. Therefore, women are advised to always check their health and undergo vaccine HPV prevention.
If HPV infection reaches the stage of symptoms, the main indication is the growth of warts. Type of warts divided into 5 categories, namely:
- Common warts are generally rough rounded bumps.
- Plantar warts or fish eyes. This wart is flat with a hole in the middle which is sometimes accompanied by black dots.
- Flat wart with a shape like a claw on the skin. The color is also varied, can be brown, yellowish, or pink.
- Filiform warts are usually a meat nodule grow with the same color as the skin.
- Warts periungual. Types of warts that usually grow in the feet and hands are chapped like cauliflower and thickened in the nail plate.
While genital warts can generally be flat lesions and bumps with cracked surfaces that look like cauliflower. These warts will cause itching, but rarely hurt.
If the wart you are suffering from pain, itching or disturbing appearance, call your doctor to get the right treatment.
Risk Factors In HPV Infections
HPV infection is highly contagious and can happen to anyone. There are a number of factors that can potentially increase a person’s risk for this virus. These risk factors include:
- Frequent pairing. Having sex with more than one partner will heighten your risk.
- Share the use of personal items, such as towels, handkerchiefs, or socks.
- Weak immune systems, such as HIV / AIDS or chemotherapy.
- Damaged skin, for example on open wounds.
- Age. Common warts commonly suffered by children, while plantar and genital warts are more common in adolescents and young adults.
- Do not maintain cleanliness, for example to the public bathroom without wearing footwear.
Diagnosis of HPV Infections
The diagnosis of primary HPV infection is through examination of the warts. If no warts appear, the doctor will recommend several tests to help the process of dianosis. Types of examinations that patients may undergo may include:
- Acetic acid solution test. The skin in the genital part infected with the HPV virus will turn white after smearing the acetic acid solution so it is easily detectable.
- Pap smears and DNA tests. In this test, the doctor will take samples of cells from the cervix and vagina to be examined in the laboratory. A Pap smear test can also be used to detect cervical cell abnormalities that may turn cancerous.
Treatment Methods HPV Infections
After a positive diagnosis, there are 2 medical methods you can choose, which is drug treatment or surgical procedure.
Handling through drugs generally use topical and takes a long time to remove warts. Some examples of topical medications to treat warts are:
- Salicylic acid that serves to erode the wart layer gradually.
- Trichloroacetic acid will burn the protein in the wart cells.
- Imiquimod that can boost the immune system against HPV.
- Podofilox that works by destroying tissue on genital warts.
In addition to topical medicines, warts can also be overcome with surgery steps that include cryotherapy, electrical surgery, surgical removal, and laser surgery.
Some types of HPV can even trigger abnormal changes in cervical cells. Changes that are not immediately detected and treated can develop into cervical cancer. Although rare, abnormal changes in penile and anal cells also include complications that HPV infection can cause.
Prevention of HPV Infections
Warts can disappear without special treatment, but it does not mean HPV virus also disappeared. This virus will remain hidden in the body of the person and can spread it to others.
The main step in preventing HPV infection is vaccination. Cervarix, Gardasil, and Gardasil 9 are the types of HPV vaccine that can help prevent genital warts and cervical cancer.
This vaccine is generally recommended for adolescent girls and can be given from the age of 10 years to 26 years.
In addition to vaccinations, there are a number of preventive measures that may be useful. These simple steps include:
- Avoid touching the wart directly. Immediately wash hands with soap if not accidentally touch the warts.
- Do not keep pairing and be alone with your partner.
- Use a condom every time you have sex. Although not fully effective, this step may reduce the risk of transmission.
- Maintain cleanliness, for example wearing footwear in public areas are damp (like the edge of the pool) and wear clean socks.
- Avoid sharing the use of personal items, such as razors or nail clippers.