How to Treat Kidney Stones?
How to Treat kidney stones depends on the size of the stone. If still relatively small, kidney stones can still be out through the urinary tract without surgery. The doctor will usually advise the patient to take medication steps properly preventive measures, namely by drinking enough water every day. With the continuous flow of liquid, it is expected that small kidney stones can be pushed out by itself.
If only water is considered not enough, doctors may prescribe medication to help expel kidney stones, such as alpha blockers. These drugs help make the ureter muscles relax so that kidney stones can come out without causing pain and within a relatively fast time.
If symptoms are felt by patients is quite disturbing, usually doctors simply prescribe painkillers, such as paracetamol, ibuprofen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In addition to painkillers, doctors will also provide antiemetic drugs to treat the symptoms of nausea and vomiting.
The doctor will usually refer the patient to the hospital if the kidney stone disease has caused severe pain. This is especially necessary if the patient has other conditions (eg being pregnant, vomiting to cause dehydration, aged over 60 years, and having only one kidney). In addition, doctors will also usually refer patients to the hospital if the symptoms of pain get worse even if given pain medication.
Handling Treatment of kidney stones with surgery
Handling of kidney stones with new surgery will be applied if the stone is large (approximately 0.6 centimeters in diameter or more) so that it clogs the patient’s urinary tract. The type of handling will depend on the location and size of the stone. The procedures for treating large kidney stones are:
- Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a procedure of destruction of kidney stones by using high frequency sound waves (ultrasound). Stone is crushed so that pieces can come out easily.
- Ureteroscopy, the procedure of removing kidney stones using a device called ureteroscope is inserted into the ureter through the urethra and bladder. Urethra is the last channel for discharge of urine from the bladder out of the body. Once its location is known, the stone will be destroyed by using other instruments or lasers. Ureteroscopy is usually done to deal with stones that are trapped inside the ureter.
- Open surgery. In modern times as it is now, this procedure is actually quite rare and only done to remove kidney stones are very large. As the name implies, open surgery is done by making an incision on the surface of the skin on the back that serves as an access for the surgeon in removing kidney stones.
- Percutaneous nephrolithotomy or abbreviated PCNL, the procedure of destruction of kidney stones. Small incisions are made on the surface of the skin near the kidneys so a device called a nephroscope can enter to break and remove the kidney stone fragments. This procedure is usually done if ESWL is not possible to do, eg in obese people