Hepatitis B Definition By Medical
Hepatitis B definition is a serious liver infection caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hepatitis B can cause acute and chronic conditions in patients. If it has entered a chronic level, this disease can endanger the life of the sufferer. If not treated promptly, chronic hepatitis B patients are at risk for cirrhosis, liver cancer, or liver failure.
Hepatitis B is difficult to recognize because the symptoms are not immediately felt and some even do not appear at all. Therefore, many people do not realize that they have been infected. This virus usually develops for 1-5 months since the exposure to the virus until the appearance of the first symptoms.
Some common symptoms of hepatitis B include:
- Loss of appetite.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Pain in the lower abdomen.
- Jaundice (seen from the skin and whites of yellowing eyes).
- Symptoms similar to a cold, such as fatigue, body aches, and headaches.
How to Transmit Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B can be transmitted through blood and body fluids, such as sperm and vaginal fluids. Some ways of transmission generally include:
- Sexual contact. For example, multiple partners and sex without a safety device.
- Share a syringe. For example using a syringe that has been contaminated blood of patients with hepatitis B.
- Contact with a syringe accidentally. For example, health workers (paramedics) who often deal with human blood.
- Mother and baby. A pregnant mother can transmit the disease to her baby during labor.
Diagnosis of Hepatitis B
Diagnosis of hepatitis B is done through a series of blood tests, namely antigen and antibody tests for hepatitis B virus, and blood tests to see liver function.
There are three types of antigen and antibody tests for hepatitis B, namely hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antigen (HbcAg), hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HbsAg) antibody. Each of these tests has different functions, and will be described in more detail in the diagnosis section.
Liver function tests are performed to check for the possibility of suffering from other liver diseases. This is because the symptoms of hepatitis B often resemble other diseases, especially disorders in the liver. In this examination, it will be seen whether there is an increase in liver enzymes, which indicate that your heart is under pressure or is experiencing certain disorders.
Acute and Chronic Hepatitis B
There are two types of hepatitis B infection, namely acute (occurring in a short time) and chronic (long term). Acute infections are commonly experienced by adults. If you have acute hepatitis B, your immune system can usually eliminate the virus from the body and you will recover within a few months.
Chronic hepatitis B occurs when the virus stays in the body for more than six months. This type of hepatitis B is more common in infants and children. Children infected with the virus at birth are at risk of developing hepatitis B four to five times greater than infected children in infancy.
As many as 20 percent of adults exposed to this virus will lead to a diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B. Chronic hepatitis B patients can transmit the virus even without showing any symptoms. Based on WHO study, about 3 out of 10 chronic hepatitis B sufferers will experience cirrhosis.
Cirrhosis is a long-term or chronic liver damage that causes injury to the liver. The slow development of the disease results in healthy tissue being replaced by damaged tissue. The function of the liver in processing nutrients, hormones, drugs, and toxins produced by the body will slow down.
Treatment of Hepatitis B
There is no specific step in the treatment of hepatitis B. The purpose of treatment of this condition is to reduce symptoms with painkillers, as well as maintain the daily comfort of the sufferer and his nutritional balance.
Meanwhile, treatment for chronic hepatitis B depends on the severity of infection in the liver. Handling of this disease is to use drugs that serve to inhibit the production of viruses and prevent damage to the liver.
Vaccine and Prevention of Hepatitis B
An effective step in the prevention of hepatitis B is to do the vaccine. In Indonesia alone, hepatitis B vaccine includes mandatory vaccines in immunization. The process of vaccination is done three times, that is when the child is born, when the child is 1 month, and when the child aged 3-6 months. However, adults of all ages are encouraged to receive the hepatitis B vaccine, especially if they are at high risk of contracting hepatitis B. Examples are:
- People who have more than one sexual partner.
- People who use injecting drugs or have sex with injecting drug users.
- Health care workers (paramedics) at risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus
- People who live in a house with hepatitis B.
- Patients with chronic liver disease.
- Patients with kidney disease.
Hepatitis B examination is also applied to pregnant women. If the mother has the disease, her baby should receive the vaccine at birth (12 hours after delivery) to prevent mother-to-child transmission. Other measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of getting hepatitis B include:
- Stop or do not use illegal drugs.
- Avoid sharing of goods such as toothbrushes, earrings, or shaving tools.
- Beware when you want to pierce ataumenato body.
- Do not have unprotected sex unless you believe your partner does not have hepatitis B or other sexually transmitted diseases.
If you have been in contact with one of the hepatitis B patients within the last 24 hours, consult a physician immediately. The risk of transmission of this disease can be reduced by administering immunoglobulin hepatitis B injection. This is a drug solution containing antibodies against hepatitis B virus.