Hemolytic Anemia Causes

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Hemolytic Anemia Causes

Some conditions that can lead to the occurrence of intrinsic hemolytic anemia are:

  • Sickle cell anemia.
  • Talassemia.
  • Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme.
  • The enzyme deficiency of pyruvate kinase

While some conditions that may lead to the occurrence of extrinsic hemolytic anemia are:

  • Enlarged spleen.
  • Epstein-Barr and Hepatitis virus infections.
  • Coli bacterial infections, Salmonella typhi, and Streptococcus sp.
  • Leukemia.
  • Lymphoma.
  • Tumor.
  • Lupus.
  • Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome.
  • HELLP syndrome.

Extrinsic haemolytic anemia can also occur due to side effects of certain drugs, such as:

  • Paracetamol.
  • Antibiotics, especially penicillin, ampicillin, and meticillin.
  • Chlorpromazine.
  • Ibuprofen.
  • Interferon
  • Procainamide.
  • Quinine (quinine).
  • Rifampin.

One of the main causes of severe hemolytic anemia is a blood transfusion error in which the donor and recipient blood groups are unsuitable. If the donor recipients are given blood that does not fit the group, then the antibodies contained in the blood plasma of the person will attack red blood cells in donated blood. This condition can cause extensive damage to red blood cells in the body.

There is also a so-called microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, a condition in which the red blood cells are fragmented. Some diseases that can cause these conditions are:

  • Artificial heart valve disturbance.
  • Hemolytic haemolytic syndrome (SHU).
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).
  • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC).

While in newborns, there is a condition of hemolytic anemia called fetal eritroblastosis. This condition occurs due to incompatibility of rhesus blood group between pregnant women with the fetus. If a pregnant woman has a rhesus negative blood group and a rhesus-positive fetal fetus, there is a possibility that the fetus in the womb has a positive rhesus. This will cause the fetal red blood cells to be attacked by antibodies from the mother’s body. The case of fetal erythroblastosis generally occurs in the second pregnancy when the pregnant mother already has antibodies formed from the first pregnancy.

Hemolytic anemia disease is quite dangerous for infants due to complications of the anemia. Currently, treatment for infants with fetal erythroblastosis is by intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or blood transfusion. Doctors can also prevent the appearance of fetal erythroblastosis in pregnant women diagnosed with the condition by giving the injection of RhoGAM at 28 weeks gestation.

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