Hematuria Definition By Medical
Haematuria definition is a medical term that indicates the presence of blood in the urine. Urine will change color to reddish or slightly browned. Normal urine contains no blood at all, except in women who are menstruating. Hematuria often looks very scary and cause concern, but this condition rarely becomes a sign of disease that endanger your life. Even so, you should immediately check to the doctor to find out the cause of the appearance of blood in the urine.
Sometimes, there is blood that appears in the urine though not invisible. This condition is often referred to as microscopic hematuria. Blood contained in the urine can only be seen in the laboratory by using a microscope. Even so, doctors still need to check the cause of the appearance of blood in the urine.
Blood present in the urine generally comes from the urinary system, such as:
- Bladder. Place to store urine.
- Urethra. Channels that pass urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.
- Ureter. Channels from the kidney to the bladder.
- Kidney. Organ that serves to filter the blood.
Haematuria generally results from other underlying medical conditions. Treatment will be adjusted to the underlying disease. For example, if hematuria is caused by a urinary tract infection, then the doctor will prescribe antibiotics. But if caused by kidney stones, treatment can be done with painkillers, tamsulosin drugs to facilitate the release of stones, to surgery. Check with your doctor if you feel urine color is not as usual.
Symptoms of Hematuria
The obvious signs of hematuria are the change of urine color to pink, reddish or tanned because it contains red blood cells. Generally, hematuria does not hurt, but if it appears that blood clot together with urine, this condition will become painful.Some cases of hematuria are not accompanied by other symptoms at all. But there are also experiencing more than hematuria. The symptoms that accompany hematuria will depend on the underlying cause, such as increased urination frequency, lower abdominal pain, or even difficulty in urination. Each of these we will discuss more deeply in the cause of hematuria.
Causes of Hematuria Occur
To know for sure if there is blood in the urine and ensure the cause, you are advised to see a doctor. Here are some common causes of blood in the urine.
- Urinary tract infection. This condition occurs when bacteria enter the body through the urethra and multiply inside the bladder. Other symptoms besides hematuria are the urge to continue urinating, pain and burning sensation during urination, and strongly scented urine.
- Kidney infections. Other symptoms are fever and also pain on the lower back side.
- Kidney stones. If the stone is small enough, the condition is painless. But if a large stone and block one of the channels of the kidney, will cause severe pain.
- Swelling of the prostate gland. This common condition is not associated with prostate cancer and tends to occur in adult males. This condition can cause difficulty urinating and frequent urination.
- Prostate cancer. This condition can be cured if known and handled early on. Tends to occur in men aged over 50 years. The development of this condition is very slow.
- Bladder cancer. This condition is more common in those aged over 50 years.
- Kidney cancer. This condition usually occurs in people over the age of 50 years. This cancer can be cured if detected and treated early.
- Inflammation of the urethra. Conditions that are commonly caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, due to chlamydial bacteria infected.
- Genetic disorders. Sickle cell anemia is a blood cell hemoglobin damage due to hereditary factors. This condition can cause the appearance of blood in the urine. In addition to sickle cell anemia, Alport syndrome can also cause hematuria. This syndrome affects the filter tissue of the kidneys.
- Drugs. Anti-cancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide and penicillin can cause hematuria. Sometimes, the appearance of blood in the urine can also be affected by anticoagulant drugs such as aspirin and blood-thinning drugs such as heparin.
- Excessive exercise. This condition may rarely occur and is not known exactly why it can cause hematuria, but one of the links is due to trauma to the bladder that is dehydrated due to excessive physical activity.
Selain hematuria, ada hal lain yang bisa menyebabkan urine berubah warna menjadi merah muda, kemerahan, atau kecokelatan. Makanan dan obat-obatan bisa menjadi salah satu penyebab perubahan warna urine. Buah bit dan beri bisa mengubah warna urine jadi berwarna merah. Lalu obat-obatan seperti antibiotik nitrofurantoin dan obat laksatif sanna bisa membuat warna urine berubah menjadi kemerahan.The color changes caused by food and drugs as above will disappear within a few days. If you are a woman, make sure the blood that comes out is not due to menstruation.
Diagnosis of Hematuria
To ensure that the color changes in the urine are caused by the presence of blood, the doctor will perform a urine test. After a urine test, you may need to perform a blood test to check for kidney function.
Imaging CT imaging tests, renal ultrasound, and intravenous pyelography can be done to identify whether there are kidney stones or other abnormalities in the urinary system. Your doctor will also ask you a few things, including your medical history.
Sample tissue sampling tests such as cystoscopy and renal biopsy are the more intensive procedures that will be performed if the cause of haematuria remains unknown. Cystoscopy is performed to determine whether there are abnormal cells or cancer cells in the bladder. While a kidney biopsy is done to find out whether there are certain conditions in your kidneys.
Sample tissue sampling tests such as cystoscopy and renal biopsy are more likely to be performed if the cause of haematuria remains unknown. Cystoscopy is performed to happen if you are abnormal cells or cancer cells in the bladder. While a kidney biopsy is done to find out if there are certain conditions in your kidneys.
- Providing antibiotics to treat urinary tract infections,
- Prescribe medications to relieve swelling of the prostate.
- Perform shock wave therapy or shock wave therapy to break the kidney and bladder stones.
If your doctor does not find the main cause of hematuria, you will be asked to perform a urine test and your doctor will monitor your blood pressure condition every three to six months. In order to avoid haematuria, you should prevent some diseases that potentially cause hematuria, including:
- Kidney stones. In order to avoid kidney stone disease, you are advised to drink lots of mineral water, limit the consumption of salt, foods containing protein and oxalate like spinach.
- Kidney cancer. To prevent kidney cancer, stop smoking, control weight, eat healthy and regular meals, diligent exercise, and stay away from exposure to toxic chemicals.
- Urinary tract infection. To reduce the risk of urinary tract infections, try to consume mineral water and urinate when feeling the pressure. Especially for women, you must clean the vital organs from front to back after urination and avoid the use of cleaning products of female area because it can cause irritation in your vital organs.
- Bladder cancer. Quitting smoking, avoiding exposure to chemicals, consuming lots of mineral water can help you in reducing the risk of lacy bladder cancer.
Prevention of Hematuria
Broadly speaking, hematuria can not be prevented. However there are some prevention strategies that you can do to lower the risk of contracting the disease that causes hematuria, including:
- Urinary tract infection. To reduce the risk of urinary tract infections, drink enough water in sufficient quantities, not to hold urine, and clean the vagina from the front to the back (anus) for the women.
- Kidney stones. To prevent kidney stones, increase the consumption of water and reduce consumption of foods high in salt, protein, and oxalate such as spinach and taro.
- Bladder cancer. Avoid or discontinue the habits, avoid exposure to chemicals, and drink plenty of water to reduce the risk of bladder cancer.
- Kidney cancer. You can reduce the risk of developing kidney cancer by avoiding or stopping smoking, keeping your weight within normal limits, eating nutritious foods, exercising regularly, and reducing exposure to chemicals.
Factors that Increase Risk of Hematuria
Haematuria can occur to anyone, including children and adolescents. There are several factors that increase the risk of hematuria occurrence, including:
- Infection. Kidney inflammation due to the influence of virus or bacteria can increase the risk of hematuria.
- Age. Most men aged over 50 years have hematuria due to the influence of swelling of the prostate gland.
- Heredity. If your family has a history of hematuria, kidney stones, or other kidney disease, you are potentially subject to hematuria.
- Certain medications. The use of drugs such as aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and certain antibiotics may increase the risk of hematuria.
- Gender. The majority of women have had a urinary tract infection at least once in a lifetime. It causes hematuria.
- Excessive exercise. Long-distance runners are especially vulnerable to bleeding in the urine. This condition is often referred to as hematuria jogger. Not just runners, anyone who exercises excessively potentially feel the symptoms of hematuria.