Eating Disorders Definition By Medical
Eating disorders definition is different attitudes to foods that cause a person to change his eating behaviors and habits. This can be a serious condition that negatively impacts one’s health, emotions and abilities in important areas of life.
A person with an eating disorder focuses too much on weight and body shape, thus making unhealthy choices in terms of food and ultimately potentially affecting the body’s ability to obtain adequate nutrition. Eating disorders can also interfere with heart function, digestive system, bone, teeth, and mouth. In addition, this condition can lead to serious life-threatening complications.
There are several types of eating disorders, but the three most common diseases are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and excessive eating disorders. The number of bulimics is about two to three times more likely than anorexia nervosa, whereas most (90 percent) sufferers are women between adolescence and early adulthood.
Patients can usually return to healthier eating habits after going through the proper diagnosis of a doctor. Some patients sometimes deny having this problem, but there are some symptoms that can be a sign that a person suffering from eating disorders.
Eating Disorder Symptoms
These symptoms vary depending on the type of disorder experienced, including:
- Bulimia nervosa or often called bulimia. When suffering from bulimia disorder, a person experiences loss of control while eating so repeatedly consume food in large quantities and then remove it back (eating and purging). This is done to reduce excess calories because of feeling guilty, embarrassed and afraid to gain excess weight. The way it is done is usually by forcing yourself to vomit and exercising too hard. Other bulimia symptoms include the use of extreme weight loss supplements, laxative use, taking diuretics or enemas on a regular basis. Bulimic patients tend to judge shortcomings in themselves by being too harsh, even if the actual weight is normal or slightly excessive. Many bulimics also limit eating in the daytime, increasing the amount of food at night, then regurgitating.
- Excessive eating disorders. When suffering from this disorder, a person usually eats in large quantities and then feels lost control with his diet. Patients are eating faster and many when not hungry and continue even though it is full. Just like bulimia, the sufferer will be disgusted with himself and embarrassed for his behavior, but the patient does not try to exercise excessive exercise or vomit his food. Patients usually tend to eat alone so that the disorder is not known by others.
- Anorexia nervosa. This disorder is shown by an abnormally low weight, feeling very afraid if weight gain and have wrong perception about body weight or body shape himself. Anorexics strive to maintain their intake of food in order to maintain their weight and body shape, which can sometimes die of starvation. Other anorexia symptoms can include: lean body, insomnia, excessive fatigue, dizziness, blue nails, nails and brittle hair, constipation, dry skin, and irregular heartbeat.
- Other eating disorders;-Pakanakan (pica) is the habit of consuming non-food ingredients, such as soap, cloth, talc, powder or soil. This eating habits can lead to medical complications, such as poisoning, bowel problems or infection. Consuming these ingredients is not good for the level of development and not part of a particular culture or life practice in society. These disorders often appear alongside other disorders, such as autism spectrum or mental retardation.-Rumination disorder. The symptom is to re-slash the newly swallowed food repeatedly. Food is put back into the mouth without the preceding nausea or vomiting. In addition, this disorder can make a person malnourished and generally experienced by small children and people with mental retardation.-Restrictive food intake disorder. The symptoms of this disorder are that one does not want to eat and avoid foods with certain characteristics related to the senses, such as color, texture, smell, or taste. This symptom relates to the fear of getting caught after eating, not for fear of excess weight.
Causes of Eating Disorders
Eating disorders can occur due to many things, among others:
- Community pressure. The success and value of a person is often misunderstood with a lean body. Group pressure and people’s views on the media can trigger a desire to strive to have a lean body.
- Some people have genes that can trigger the development of eating disorders. A person who has a parent or sibling who suffers from an eating disorder is less likely to experience it as well.
- Emotional and psychological problems. Patients with eating disorders usually have emotional and psychological problems that trigger them to experience this condition. Patients may have low self-confidence, perfectionism, impulsive attitudes, or disrupted relationships with family members or friends. In addition, eating disorders can also be triggered by stressful situations and bad experiences (such as sexual harassment, intimidation, or loss of a close person).
In addition to the above things, there are a number of factors that may increase the risk of eating disorders, including:
- Age. Young women or young women from their 20s tend to suffer more from this disorder than men.
- Profession. Athletes, actors, models are also at high risk of eating disorders because they are required to lose weight by work.
- Psychological disorders. A person with psychological disorders, such as depression, stress, anxiety or obsessive-compulsive behavior tend to suffer from eating disorders.
- Unnatural diets. Someone who is on an excessive diet tend to experience eating disorders.
Diagnosis of Eating Disorders
Diagnosis of eating disorders is made based on signs, symptoms and eating habits of a person. If suspected of having an eating disorder, then a person is required to undergo some examination by a doctor and psychologist / psychiatrist to determine the existence of the disorder. Diagnosis is done by:
- Comprehensive physical examination, such as height, weight and other vital signs, including heart rate, blood pressure, pulse rate and stomach conditions.
- Blood and urine examinations are required to examine the whole blood, liver, kidney, and thyroid function.
- The doctor will also file an X-ray and electrocardiogram check for broken bones, irregular heartbeat or signs of tooth decay characterizing anorexia or bulimia.
- Psychological examination will be done by a psychologist or psychiatrist to know the patient’s attitude to food, how to eat and view on the body. It’s important to get honest answers to determine the right treatment.
Eating Disorders Treatment
Treatment of eating disorders is usually done by a team that includes doctors, psychologists or psychiatrists, nutritionists, and all who are experienced in eating disorders. This treatment is done based on the type of disorder experienced but if the condition of ganggguan is life-threatening, it required hospitalization.
Treatment for this disorder is a major psychotherapy or also called speech therapy to replace unhealthy habits become healthier. One of them is cognitive behavioral therapy (cognitive behavioral therapy). This therapy is primarily, done for bulimics and eating disorders excessive. Cognitive perivaku therapy will change a person’s point of view in the face of a situation, including finding a problem solving and a healthy way of coping with the pressure that can ultimately change a person’s attitude for the better.
Other types of talk therapy that can be done is interpersonal therapy that focuses on issues related to other people’s relationships, family therapy that involves the whole family to discuss the disturbances experienced by the patient, the relationship between them and the influence of this disorder on the family.
In addition to these two therapies, diet therapy is also done to help a person regain and maintain a healthy diet. This therapy is performed by nutritionists and doctors, especially for patients with less weight due to eating disorders.
Medication may be considered. Although the drug can not cure eating disorders, it can help control the urge to eat lots, vomiting, or excessive anxiety regarding diet and food. Drugs given generally are antidepressant and antihemas.
The support of family and friends is essential for the success of treatment in people with eating disorders.
Eating Disorders Complications
Eating disorders can cause various complications. The more severe and longer the eating disorders experienced, the more serious complications that can be experienced, including:
- Inhibition of body growth.
- Psychological disorders, such as depression and anxiety, or even the intention to commit suicide.
- Serious health problems.
- Decrease in school performance or decrease in work quality.
- Damage to social relations.
If the patient has any of the symptoms suspected as a complication of eating disorders, you should see a doctor or psychologist / psychiatrist to get treatment.