What is Discoid Eczema?
Discoid eczema is a skin disease characterized by pain or pain in the skin. These painful areas of the skin are often coins or ovals that appear after damage to the skin surface, for example from burns, friction or insect bites. Spots that feel sore due to numularis dermatitis can stay for 1 week to 1 month. Discoid eczema is also known by other terms, namely eczema numularis, or discoid eczema.
Discoid eczema is more common in men than in females. Discoid eczema in men often appears first at the age of 55-60 years. While in women, this condition first appears at a younger age, ie at adolescence or adulthood.
Symptoms of Discoid eczema
Symptoms of Discoid eczema are often characterized by the appearance of reddish patches on the skin of small size, but many and clumped. These spots sometimes discharge the liquid and can accumulate, then enlarge to form like a coin. Spots that turn yellow indicate the occurrence of bacterial Staphylococcus aureus infection in dermatitis-affected areas. This condition can be overcome by using antibiotics. The skin between the patches of dermatitis will remain clean even if it is easily irritated. Other symptoms that can be observed in the Discoid eczema spots are:
- The size of dermatitis spots varies from 2 cm to 10 cm.
- Often appears on the feet, but can also occur in the body, hands, arms, and soles of the feet.
- Colors can vary from red, pink, or brown.
- Itching and burning are mild to severe. Itching often appears and worsens at night, and can interfere with sleep quality of patients.
- Skin with dermatitis then removes fluid that can turn into hard and scaly.
Causes of Discoid Eczema
Until now, the exact cause of Discoid eczema can not be known specifically. Several studies have shown an association between occurrence of Discoid eczema in a person with sensitivity to some chemical compounds, including:
- Metals, including rare and toxic metals (eg nickel and mercury).
- Drugs, such as neomycin or other antibiotics used in the skin.
Some of the factors that increase a person’s risk of developing Discoid eczema are:
- Very dry skin (xerosis).
- Suffered or had a history of atopic dermatitis or stasis dermatitis.
- Poor blood flow and swelling in the legs.
- Injury to the skin from insect bites, chemical compounds or physical friction.
- Skin infections by bacteria.
- Taking medications that can increase skin problems, such as isotretinoin and interferon.
- Live and live in dry or cold areas.
In addition, the following factors may also contribute to the emergence of Discoid eczema in a person, namely:
- Temperature change.
- Dry skin.
- Irritants from the environment, such as soap, chemical compounds, and others.
Diagnosis of Discoid Eczema
Discoid eczema can be identified easily by checking dermatitis-related skin. Doctors can also perform allergy tests to check if the skin of the patient has allergies that trigger dermatitis. Some diagnostic methods that can help diagnose Discoid eczema are:
- Swabbing and bacterial cultures. Swabbing is done by taking exudate fluid that comes out of the skin with dermatitis numularis. This method aims to detect whether there is a bacterial infection in the dermatitis region.Bacteria that commonly appear in the dermatitis area include Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori, and Giardia spp. Especially if the patient has a history of infection of these pathogens.
- Skin biopsy. Skin biopsy is done by taking skin tissue on the inflamed part, then observed using a microscope. Skin biopsy can distinguish microscopic Discoid eczema from other diseases, such as tinea corporis, psoriasis, and T-cell lymphoma.
Treatment of Discoid Eczema
Dry and damaged skin due to Discoid eczema is quite difficult to treat. Therefore, an intensive consultation with a dermatologist is necessary for maximum nurse dermatitis to be cured. The steps of treatment and treatment that can be done to overcome Discoid eczema are:
Protect the skin. Skin experiencing numular dermatitis can become more damaged if exposed to physical injuries, such as rubbed, sliced, cut, and others.
Some of the steps you can take to protect the skin affected by numular dermatitis are:
- Avoid physical damage to the skin from the outside, such as friction, incision, and incision.
- Avoid using clothes that can trigger an allergic reaction, such as a wool.
- Avoid skin from harmful chemical compounds, such as floor cleaners, soaps with harsh chemical compounds, fabric softener, and so on.
- Avoid skin from exposure to hot water.
- Uses damp bandages in areas affected by dermatitis.
Maintain skin moisture. After the shower is finished by using warm water, wipe the skin moisturizer on the part that has inflammation. This method will help reduce itching and prevent scaly skin. However, you should first consult this method with a dermatologist.
Taking special medicines dermatitis numularis. Some types of drugs that can be given to patients with numularis dermatitis are:
- Corticosteroids. These drugs can help relieve numular dermatitis by reducing the inflammatory reaction. How to use corticosteroids to treat numular dermatitis are two, oral (topical) and topical (applied directly to the skin Some examples of this type of drug are topical triamcinolone, prednisone, and clobetasol.
- Immune system modulator. Just like corticosteroids, immune system modulator drugs also help the inflammatory reaction by regulating the activity of white blood cells. Some types of corticosteroids that can be used are topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus
- Antihistamines. These drugs are used to alleviate allergic responses and also help people with numular dermatitis to sleep more soundly. Keep in mind that the use of antihistamines will cause drowsiness, including nonsedative antihistamines. An example of this type of drug is hydroxyzine.
- Antibiotics. This drug is used in patients with dermatitis already accompanied by bacterial infection. Some types of antibiotics used for numular dermatitis are sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, dicloxacillin, erythromycin, and cephalexin.