Diabetic Ketoacidosis Definition By Medical
Diabetic Ketoacidosis definition is a deadly diabetic complication caused by a lack of insulin in a person’s body. This condition can occur when the body can not process blood sugar (glucose) because of insufficient insulin in the body.
As a substitute for glucose, the body uses fat as a substitute fuel. The result of the process is an acidic compound with a sufficient number of named ketone, which is harmful to the body.
This condition is very common in people with type 1 diabetes, but quite rarely found in people with type 2 diabetes. Sometimes diabetic ketoacidosis can appear in people who do not realize if he has diabetes. Especially children and adolescents.
Symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Symptoms are something that is felt and told by the patient. The main symptoms of early diabetic ketoacidosis are:
- Shortness of breath or shortness of breath.
- The volume of urine increases.
- Feeling thirsty constantly.
- Increased blood sugar and / or ketones.
- Stomach ache.
If left untreated, the patient will experience symptoms:
- The heartbeat is faster (tachycardia).
- Breathing faster.
- Dizzy and confused.
- The breath smells like a child’s drops or a napkin cleaner.
- Easy to drowsy.
If you feel some of the above symptoms, immediately consult a doctor. Because untreated diabetic ketoacidosis can be fatal. Here are some complications that can be caused diabetic ketoacidosis:
- Low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia).
- Low potassium levels (hypokalemia).
- Brain swelling (cerebral edema).
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome.
- Acute renal failure.
Causes of Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Sugar is the main source of energy for muscle cells and other tissues. When insulin deficiency, the body is not able to process glucose so that body fat will be taken as fuel. This fat processing process will produce a substance called ketone that is harmful to the body.
Because the body can not be processed, blood glucose levels will be high. The combination of high glucose and ketone levels can lead to symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis.
Some things that usually trigger the emergence of diabetic ketoacidosis are:
- Physical or emotional trauma.
- Abuse of alcohol and drugs.
- Pain or other infections, and consequently make the body produce some hormones that have opposite effects to insulin.
- Heart attack.
- Problems when insulin therapy. Lack of insulin therapy can lead to decreased amount of insulin in the body system.
- Some treatments, such as cartichosteroids and diuretics.
- Undiagnosed diabetes.
Diagnosis Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diagnosis is a doctor’s step to identify a disease or condition that explains the symptoms and signs experienced by the patient.
To diagnose diabetic ketoacidosis, the doctor will perform several checks such as:
- Physical examination.
- Blood tests, to determine blood sugar levels, ketone levels, and blood acidity levels.
- Chest X-ray imaging to see possible complications.
- Urine test.
- Blood electrolyte test.
- Electrocardiogram test, to record the electrical activity of the heart.
Treatment and Prevention of Diabetic Ketoacidosis
To treat diabetic ketoacidosis doctors usually will assess how separah symptoms are felt by the patient. Usually the patient will be treated with a combination of three types of treatments below:
- Replacement of body minerals, which disappears when the patient is dehydrated. For example potassium.
- Insulin therapy. Insulin pumping directly into the patient’s blood vessels.
- Replacement of body fluids. The liquid will be pumped directly into the blood vessels to replace lost body fluids.
Diabetics should follow medical doctor’s recommendations to avoid diabetic ketoadosis. Some things that can be done to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis are:
- Always maintain and monitor blood sugar levels. Eat healthy foods, regular exercise and always check blood sugar levels.
- Enough body fluids.
- Adjust the dose of insulin to the body needs. Consult your doctor to adjust the dosage of insulin.
- Check ketone levels. Especially when your blood sugar levels are also high.