Diabetes Mellitus Definition By Medical
Diabetes Mellitus definition is a long-term or chronic disease characterized by blood sugar levels (glucose) is far above normal. Glucose is very important for our health because it is the main energy source for the brain as well as the cells that make up the muscles and tissues in our body.
This disease has two main types, namely type 1 and type 2 diabetes Mellitus.
Indonesia itself is among the top 10 countries with diabetes Mellitus. In 2013, diabetics in Indonesia is estimated to reach about 8.5 million people with an age range of 20-79 years (quoted from the International Diabetes Federation). But less than 50% of those who realize it.
What are the Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus?
It is important for us to know the early symptoms of diabetes Mellitus. Both for high-risk and for those who feel healthy and have no history or potential for diabetes Mellitus.
Type 1 diabetes Mellitus can develop rapidly within weeks, even days. While many people with type 2 diabetes do not realize that they have diabetes for years because the symptoms tend not to be specific. Some of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include:
- Often feel thirsty.
- Frequent urination, especially at night.
- Extreme hunger.
- Weight loss for no apparent reason.
- Reduced muscle mass.
- There is ketone in urine. Ketones are a by-product of muscle and fat metabolism that occurs when insulin production is insufficient.
- Vague views.
- Long wound healed.
- Often have infections, such as the gums, skin, vagina, or urinary tract.
If you experience any of these symptoms, consult your doctor immediately. Early detection may allow us to prevent further aggravation of our diabetes condition.
Effects of Insulin and Diabetes Hormones
All cells in the human body need glucose to work normally. Blood sugar levels are usually controlled by the hormone insulin produced by the pancreas, the organ located behind the stomach.
But pancreatic organs belonging to diabetics are unable to produce the hormone insulin as needed by the body. Without insulin, the body’s cells can not absorb and process glucose into energy.
Overview About Type 1 Diabetes
People with type 1 diabetes are very dependent on insulin because the immune system of the patient will attack and destroy the pancreatic cells that produce insulin. This triggers an increase in glucose levels resulting in damage to the organs of the body. Until now, the cause behind type 1 diabetes is not known for certain.
People with this type of diabetes generally aged under 40 years, usually appear in adolescence or children. Therefore, type 1 diabetes is also referred to as juvenile diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2 diabetes. Among 10 people with diabetes, it is estimated that only 1 person has type 1.
In addition to receiving daily insulin injections, type 1 diabetics are also advised to keep blood glucose levels in balance. For example by applying a healthy diet and undergoing blood tests regularly.
Overview of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a more common type of diabetes. About 90 percent of diabetics in the world suffer from this type of diabetes.
This type of diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin production in the body or body cells that become less sensitive to insulin. This lack of body cells is known as insulin resistance.
Symptoms in people with this type of diabetes can usually be controlled with a healthy diet and monitor blood glucose levels. However, stay alert because this disease will continue to grow in the body and gradually you will need treatment step.
Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity. Indeed, not everyone who suffers from obesity will automatically suffer from type 2 diabetes. However, the higher a person’s body mass index, the risk of this type of diabetes also increases. Diabetes due to obesity generally attacks the elderly.
The Risks of Pregnancy Diabetes
Diabetes also often attacks pregnant women. There are some women who have very high blood glucose levels during pregnancy, so their body can not produce enough insulin to absorb it. Diabetes known as gestational diabetes can occur in about 15 to 18 people among 100 pregnant women.
Patients with type 1 diabetes who become pregnant will also have a high risk because it can affect the mother and fetus. It is important for pregnant diabetics to maintain their blood sugar balance.
Pregnant women should be more careful to monitor blood sugar levels in the second trimester (weeks 14-26). It was during this time that gestational diabetes generally developed and then disappeared after delivery. However, the risk of type 2 diabetes in women who have had gestational diabetes is about three times higher than the general population.