Chronic Kidney Disease Diagnosis in Adults
Generally, chronic kidney disease diagnosis is done through regular checks of urine and blood. Through routine examination, especially in people at high risk, it will be easy to detect if there is a decrease in renal function in patients. If allegedly positive, then the test may be repeated to confirm the diagnosis.
Tests for Detecting Kidney Damage Levels
There are several tests that can be used to determine the level of damage to your kidneys. The tests include:
- Urine test
One of the symptoms of Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3 mis there is protein or blood in your urine. Then this test is used to check the possibility of the content. Changes in this urine can appear 6-10 months or longer before symptoms occur.
- Glomerular Filtration Rate (LFG)
The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a measure of how well your kidneys work based on the amount of impurities that the kidneys filter from the blood. The estimated normal glomerular filtration rate or eGFR is 90 ml of dirt per minute. This range of numbers indicates that the kidneys are still functioning properly. The eGFR calculation uses a special formula. The method is to calculate the creatinine levels in the blood sample, then calculated based on your age, gender, and ethnicity. This GFR result is an estimate of the percentage of your kidney’s normal function. For example: an estimated GFR of 60ml / min is equivalent to 60% of kidney function still running.
In cases of advanced Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3, the kidneys can contract and are not intact. Before such renal changes occur, the scan is used to determine if there is an abnormal blockage in your urine flow. This process is performed with tools such as ultrasound, computerised tomography (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
- Kidney biopsy
A biopsy is performed by taking small samples of the kidney tissue. Detection of kidney damage is then done by examining these cells with a microscope.
Determining Kidney Failure Stadium
The development of kidney disease is classified by a rating system (stage) based on the results of GFR obtained. There are six stages to define the severity of chronic renal failure:
- EGFR is above 90 or normal: stage 1.
Although eGFR values are normal, there is damage to the kidneys detected by other tests. For example, there is blood in the urine (hematuria) or inflammation of the kidneys.
- EGFR is worth 60-89: stage 2.
The rate of eGFR falls slightly to 60-89 ml / min and is accompanied by damage or impairment of the kidneys. Patients with the same eGFR rate without renal impairment are not considered to have CRA.
In order for the development of renal condition to be monitored continuously, patients with first or second stage GGK are recommended to undergo annual eGFR tests.
- EGFR is worth 30-59: stage 3.
This stadium is divided into two, namely:
- Stage 3a: the rate of eGFR (45-59). There is a mild decrease in kidney function, requiring annual screening.
- Stage 3b: eGFR rate (30-44). There is a severe decline in kidney function, requiring periodic examination every six months.
- EGFR is worth 15-29: stage 4.
At this stage, the person may have experienced the symptoms of CRF and should follow the examination every six months.
- EGFR is under 15: stage 5.
Called a condition of kidney failure, the kidney has lost almost all its functions. Every three months, this kidney failure patient needs to undergo the examination.
The results of eGFR from time to time may rise or fall. CKD diagnosis usually can only be confirmed if the eGFR tests performed several times for three consecutive months show consistent results below normal.
Most Risk Groups
It is recommended to perform an annual routine check to detect Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3, especially if you belong to a group of people at high risk:
- People with diabetes, hypertension, lupus, stroke, heart disease.
- People who regularly take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen or those containing lithium for a long time.
- People with a family history who have had a stage 5 or have kidney disease.
- Patients with hematuria (in the urine there is blood) or proteinuria (there are proteins in the urine) whose cause is unknown.
Your doctor will usually recommend whether you belong to the high risk group for routine checkups.