Cholera Meaning in Medical
Cholera meaning is a bacterial infection that can cause the sufferer to dehydrate from severe diarrhea. Cholera transmission usually occurs through contaminated water. If not treated promptly, cholera can be fatal in just a few hours.
Cholera usually plague in densely populated areas without adequate sanitation. With prompt and appropriate treatment, cholera can be treated well. Cheap and simple treatments, such as oralit, can be used to prevent dehydration from cholera.
Not all cholera sufferers experience symptoms, so do not realize that they have been infected with Vibrio cholerae or cholera bacteria. Of all people infected with cholera, only 10 percent of them show symptoms.
Although it has no symptoms, cholera can still transmit the disease to others through stools that contain cholera bacteria and contaminate water for 1-2 weeks.
Here are some symptoms of cholera that may occur:
- These symptoms may appear suddenly. Cholera diarrhea can cause rapid loss of body fluids, which is about 1 liter per hour. It is difficult to distinguish between diarrhea caused by cholera or other diseases. However, diarrhea due to cholera will usually cause the patient looks pale.
- Nausea and vomiting. People infected with cholera bacteria will feel nausea and vomiting for several hours in the early stages of infection.
- Stomach cramps. Abdominal cramps can occur due to loss of sodium, chloride, and potassium levels due to prolonged diarrhea.
- Dehydration. Cholera that has caused symptoms for several hours can lead to dehydration or body fluid deficiency. Severe dehydration occurs when the body loses fluid more than 10 percent of total body weight.
At the time of dehydration due to cholera, one can feel some of the symptoms below:
- The mouth is dry.
- Arrhythmias or heart rhythm disturbances.
- Sunken eyes.
- Easy to get angry.
- Feeling very thirsty.
- Body lethargic.
- Hypotension or low blood pressure.
- Urine that came out little or no.
- Skin wrinkled and dry.
Dehydration can cause an imbalance in electrolyte levels or loss of large amounts of minerals in the blood that is useful to maintain fluid balance in the body. Electrolyte imbalances can cause oxygen and blood pressure to drop dramatically, as well as muscle cramps.
Cholera symptoms in children are often more severe than adults. Children with cholera bacteria are more susceptible to hypoglycemia or low blood sugar that can cause seizures, loss of consciousness, and even coma. Immediately see a doctor if you experience severe diarrhea and dehydration symptoms to get proper follow-up treatment.
Causes of Cholera
The cause of cholera infection is a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae. Cholera bacteria produce CTX or potent toxins in the small intestine. The intestinal wall attached to CTX will disrupt the flow of sodium and chloride minerals to the end causing the body to discharge large quantities of water (diarrhea) and result in electrolyte and fluid shortages.
There are several serological groups of Vibrio cholerae bacteria, but there are only two types that can cause epidemic diseases, namely V.cholerae O1 and V.cholerae O139. Both of these types have the same toxicity and the resulting symptoms are not much different.
There are two different life cycles in cholera bacteria, namely in the human body and the environment.
- Cholera bacteria in the human body. People infected with cholera bacteria can transmit disease through stools that contain bacteria. Cholera bacteria can reproduce fertile if the water and food supplies are contaminated with the stool.
- Cholera bacteria in the environment. Shore waters that have a small crustacean named copepoda is a natural place of the emergence of cholera bacteria. Plankton and certain types of algae are a source of food for crustaceans, and cholera bacteria will come along with their host (ie crustaceans), following a food source scattered throughout the world.
Sources of cholera infection can come from foods or water that contain bacteria, such as eating raw or unfit cooked shellfish. In addition cholera infection can be sourced from raw vegetables and fruits that are not peeled. The growth of cholera bacteria in cholera-prone areas can also occur through rice and contaminated milets after being cooked and allowed to stand at room temperature for several hours.
Densely populated environments without adequate sanitation are usually vulnerable to cholera. Cholera bacteria can survive in the water for long periods of time and contaminate the wells used by the general public. In addition, agricultural land contaminated by poor fertilization or by irrigation-containing irrigation also has the potential to become a source of cholera.
In addition to several sources of cholera infection as mentioned above, there are also several factors that can increase the risk of contracting cholera bacteria, namely:
- Blood type O. People with this type of blood have a risk of contracting cholera twice as large as other blood types.
- Living with someone with cholera. Since cholera bacteria tend to stay in water sources, people living with cholera will be at higher risk of developing the disease because they drink from the same water source.
- It has low levels of stomach acid. Cholera bacteria can not survive in acidic environments. Human gastric acid can be the first defense against infection.
Large amounts of fluid and electrolyte loss can be harmful and fatal. Shock and severe dehydration are the most dangerous cholera complications. In addition there are several other health problems that can arise due to cholera, namely:
- Hypokalemia, or potassium deficiency that can lead to impaired heart and nerve function.
- Kidney failure, which results from loss of the kidney’s ability to filter, thus releasing large amounts of fluid and electrolytes from the body. Shock often appears in cholera sufferers who have kidney failure.
- Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar levels that can occur if the patient is too sick to eat. This can be dangerous because glucose is the body’s main source of energy. Missing awareness, convulsions, and even death can occur due to these complications. Children are more susceptible to hypoglycemia.
Diagnosis is done to treat cholera and determine the right treatment. The only way to confirm the diagnosis of cholera is to test the stool sample to see the presence of bacteria. Now medical officers in remote areas can use tests to diagnose cholera more quickly and reduce the fatal impact that can occur.
The most fatal consequences of cholera are deaths that can occur within hours. That’s why patients need fast and precise handling. Emergency handling measures may include:
- Administration of ORS, to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. Oralite is available in powder form which can be mixed with bottled mineral water or boiled water.
- Infusion, for people with severe dehydration.
- Provision of zinc supplements, to relieve diarrhea in children with cholera.
- Giving antibiotics, to reduce the number of bacteria, while shortening diarrhea due to cholera.
To prevent cholera, you should always maintain personal hygiene and food. You can reduce your cholera risk by doing the following:
- Avoid buying food from hawkers or street vendors, Eat foods that are completely cooked.
- Avoid eating raw seafood or not cooked until cooked.
- Avoid consumption of raw milk and beware of dairy products (eg ice cream), because it is often contaminated with bacteria.
- Wash your hands with soap and water regularly, especially before eating and after using the toilet. Before washing with water, rub both hands with soap for at least 15 seconds. You can also use a hand sanitizer containing alcohol if there is no soap and water.
- Drink bottled water or water that has been cooked to boil. In general, bottled drinks, cans, or warm drinks are safer. But before opening the beverage packaging, wipe the outside first.
- Gargle with clean water after brushing your teeth.
- Avoid eating unpeeled salads and fruits, like grapes. Choose vegetables and fruits that can be peeled alone, such as kiwi, banana, and papaya.
Vaccination can also be done so as not to catch the cholera bacteria, but the distribution of this vaccine is still limited. Currently, there are three brands of cholera vaccine that pass WHO pre-qualified test, namely Dukoral®, Shanchol ™, and Euvichol®. The vaccine is administered orally and is reserved for people who will travel to cholera outbreak areas and for those with limited access to medical services (eg humanitarian aid workers).
Based on WHO data in 2015, several African countries such as Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Sudan and Tanzania are affected by cholera endemic. Ideally, cholera vaccine is given approximately one week before someone travels to cholera-prone areas. For people over the age of six, 2 doses of cholera vaccine can protect them from cholera bacterial infection for two years. As for children aged two to six, it takes 3 doses of cholera vaccine to protect them from cholera bacteria attack for six months.