Causes of Uterine Cancer in Humans
Causes of uterine cancer is not known for certain. However, there are several factors that can increase a person’s risk of this condition, including:
Exposure to Estrogen
Estrogen is one of the hormones that serves to regulate the female reproductive system. Together with progesterone, they work together to regulate the balance of the reproductive system. After menopause, the production of the hormone progesterone stops completely while the production of the hormone estrogen still exists despite decreasing dramatically. Estrogen levels can increase if not offset by the hormone progesterone. Therefore, the risk of uterine cancer for women who have experienced menopause tend to be higher.
Women who experience menopause at an age older than average and women who start menstruating at a younger age have a higher risk of developing uterine cancer. The reason is that they are exposed to estrogen for longer periods than women who start menstruating more late or women who experience menopause at a normal age.
At the time of pregnancy, female progesterone levels are higher than estrogen. Therefore, women who have never been pregnant have a higher risk of uterine cancer.
Hormone Replacement Therapy
This type of estrogen replacement therapy should only be given to women who have had a hysterectomy whereas if the uterus is still present, combination hormone replacement therapy (estrogen and progesterone) should be used to reduce the risk of uterine cancer.
The Influence of Excess Weight Or Obesity
Estrogen levels in the body of women who are overweight or obese is higher so that it can increase the risk of uterine cancer more than twice. This is because fat tissue will produce additional esterogens, while the body does not produce additional progesterone hormones to compensate.
The Effect of Age
Most uterine cancers affect elderly women who have experienced menopause.
Polysistic Ovarian Syndrome
People with polycystic ovary syndrome are at high risk of developing uterine cancer because of high estrogen exposure.
Type 2 Diabetes Risk
Women with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of developing uterine cancer. This is because women with type 2 diabetes tend to be overweight or obese.
Use of Tamoxifen
All drugs must have risks and side effects, including tamoxifen which can increase the risk of uterine cancer for its users.
This is a condition where the lining of the uterus becomes thicker. Women who experience this condition have a greater risk of uterine cancer.