Causes of Urticaria in Humans
Causes of urticaria occurs when the body is exposed to allergic reactions, food chemicals, insect stings, sun exposure, or drugs. These things cause the body to secrete a chemical compound called histamine. This histamine will cause the release of plasma in the blood, thus triggering the itching and swelling of surrounding tissue.
There are several conditions that trigger the occurrence of urticaria, both acute and chronic. Among others are:
Acute urticaria is an urticaria whose symptoms are no more than six weeks. Unfortunately, more than half of cases of acute urticaria are not known. The following are some of the factors that allegedly trigger acute urticaria, including:
- Allergic reactions to factors present in the environment, such as pollen, dust mites, insect bites, or certain chemicals.
- Allergies to foods such as nuts, seafood, eggs, and milk.
- Insect bites.
- Infections, both mild like colds to serious ones like HIV.
- Side effects of drugs, such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and aspirin.
- Health conditions, including immune disorders (eg lupus and cancer), as well as bacterial or viral infections (eg HIV hepatitis).
- Environmental factors, such as changes in hot or cold temperatures, sunlight, and water quality.
In cases of chronic urticaria, symptoms last more than six weeks. Usually the cause of this condition is more difficult to know, but can also be the same as acute urticaria.
The antibodies produced by the immune system trigger the release of histamine and this results in chronic urticaria. Not fully known why the immune system can respond to trigger factors by mistakenly attacking normal body cells. Therefore, there are several cases of chronic urticaria that appear with other autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Especially in chronic urticaria, this condition is recurrent. Urticaria will appear and disappear within a certain period of time. Some of the triggers or factors that aggravate chronic urticaria include:
- Eating beverages containing alcohol or caffeine.
- Hot weather.
- Pressure on the skin for a long time such as using clothes that are too tight.
- Wearing clothes that are too tight for a long time.
- Consume drugs such as anti-hypertensive drugs such as ACE inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and painkillers.
- Eating additives present in foods or beverages.
- Experiencing stress.
- Bites or insect stings.
In addition to the above, chronic urticaria can also occur due to intestinal infections, disorders of the thyroid gland, and hepatitis.