Causes of HIV And AIDS in Humans
Causes of HIV and AIDS in humans is through unsafe and alternate sex for injecting drug users (IDUs). Whether there is a symptom or not, an HIV-infected person can pass the virus on to others. HIV positive people more easily transmit the virus a few weeks after they get infected. Treatment of HIV will reduce the risk of spreading to others.
The spread of HIV
HIV is not as infectious as that to other people. This virus does not spread through the air like cough and flu virus. HIV lives in the blood and some body fluids. But liquids such as saliva, sweat, or urine can not transmit the virus to others. This is because the content of the virus in the liquid is not enough. The fluids that can transmit HIV into other people’s bodies are:
- Anal wall
- Breast milk
- Vaginal fluids, including menstrual blood
HIV is not infected from kissing, saliva, bites, sneezing, sharing toiletries, towels, utensils, using the same toilet or pool, bitten by animals or mosquito-like insects. The main ways that viruses can enter the bloodstream are:
- Through open wounds on the skin.
- Through the thin walls of the mouth and eyes.
- Through thin walls inside the anus or genitals.
- Through a direct injection into a blood vessel using an infected needle or injection.
Viral spread of the most important is by way of unprotected sex through vagina and anal. Unsecured oral sex is also at risk of infection, but the risk is quite small. The spread of HIV through oral sex will increase if people who perform oral sex are canker sores or there are cuts in the mouth. Or have sex with people who have just been infected with HIV and have many viruses in their bodies.
- The high risk of HIV transmission varies, depending on the type of sexual intercourse.
- Doing oral sex in a man who is HIV positive, and the man ejaculates in the mouth.
- Transmission of HIV can occur when we do oral sex in women who are HIV positive, especially when the woman is menstruating, although the risk is small.
- Receiving oral sex from people with HIV is very low, because HIV is not transmitted through saliva.
In addition to sex, HIV can be transmitted through:
- Blood transfusion.
- From mother to baby, whether during pregnancy, childbirth, or when breastfeeding.
- Sharing needles, whether for piercing or tattooing.
- Share the injections, especially for the heated (injecting drug users).
- Share sex aids with people living with HIV.
The Effects Of HIV In The Human Body
The immune system is in charge of protecting us from attacking diseases. One important element of the immune system is the CD4 cell (one type of white blood cell). These cells protect against a variety of bacteria, viruses, and other germs.
HIV infects the immune system. The virus enters the immune system in CD4 cells. This virus utilizes CD4 cells to multiply itself thousands of times. This self-replicating virus will leave the CD4 cell and kill it at the same time. The more CD4 cells that die, the immune system gets lower. Until finally, the immune system does not work.
When this process occurs, the body will still feel healthy and no problem. This condition can last for 10 years or even more. And patients can spread the virus in this period.
People at Risk for HIV Infection
Remember that everyone is at risk of HIV infection, regardless of age limit. But there are some groups of people who are at higher risk of HIV infection. They are:
- Users of injecting narcotics.
- People who make tattoos or do piercings.
- People who have unprotected sex either sex, or heterosexual.
- People who live or travel frequently to areas with high HIV rates, such as Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia, and southern America.
- People who perform blood transfusions in areas with high HIV rates.
- People affected by other sexually transmitted infections.
- People who have sex with injecting drug users.