Causes of Dysentery in Humans
Causes of dysentery is divided into two categories, namely bacteria and amoeba. Shigella bacteria have 4 types, namely Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii, and Shigella dysenteriae. Shigella sonnei is the most common cause of dysentery, while Shigella dysenteriae is the most severe cause of dysentery.
Shigella bacteria found in a person’s stool can spread in many ways, especially as a result of poor hygiene, for example:
- Because people do not wash hands after defecation.
- If we consume a contaminated drink or food.
- When we touch objects or body parts contaminated by bacteria because it is touched patients who do not wash hands.
Causes of Dysentery Amoeba
Amoebic dysentery or amoebiasis is caused by amoeba (a single-celled parasite) called Entamoeba histolytica. The disease is usually found in tropical regions such as Indonesia.
After entering the mouth, amoeba-amoeba form a cyst that is protected from stomach acid when it enters the stomach. From the stomach, the cyst will go down to the intestine. The walls of the upholstery then break and release amoeba-amoeba that will lead to infection. They can immerse themselves into the intestinal wall and cause the formation of small abscesses and ulcers (ulcers).
Cysts are able to survive outside the human body. If hygiene standards are low, for example there is no hygienic sewer, the amoeba will contaminate the surrounding area including food and water.
The risk of spread of amoebic dysentery will also increase if you live in the environment:
- With an inadequate supply of clean water or sewage.
- Be close to the sewer.
- A densely populated, for example a slum area.
- Where human feces is used as fertilizer.
Having a low immune system or having anal sex can also be a risk factor for contracting dysentery.