Cardiomyopathy Meaning By Medical
Cardiomyopathy meaning is a disease associated with myocardial or cardiac muscle. This disease is not associated with heart artery disease, heart valves, or high blood pressure, but it has several levels of cardiac muscle dysfunction that can be caused by other diseases. Cardiomyopathy can be a cause of a weak heartbeat or irregular heart failure to the sufferer.
Some cases of cardiomyopathy are a hereditary disease and are common in young children and young people. There are four main types of cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Treatment of this disease will depend on how serious the type of cardiomyopathy affects.
Causes of Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy or weak heart occurs when the myocardium can not pump and send blood to all parts of the body. In addition to being affected by abnormal heart muscle structures, this functional disorder is also associated with several risk factors, including:
- Damage to heart tissue from heart attacks previously experienced.
- Heartbeats are beating too fast in the long run.
- The genetic condition is inherited.
- Patients with high blood pressure long term.
- Disorders of the heart valve.
- Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are important for the body, such as vitamin B1.
- Metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, obesity, or thyroid gland disease.
- Alcohol abuse is like an overuse of alcoholic drinking for years.
- Complications in pregnancy.
- Consumption of amphetamines, cocaine, or anabolic steroids.
- Consume chemotherapy drugs and radiation therapy to treat cancer.
- Amyloidosis or disorders that can trigger the production of abnormal proteins.
- Hemochromatosis or accumulation of iron in the heart muscle.
- Sarcoidosis or certain conditions that can cause inflammation and growth of cell clots in the heart and other organs of the body.
- Certain infections, including hepatitis C, can injure the heart and trigger cardiomyopathy.
- Disorders of the connective tissue of the body.
The factors above will provide different disorders in the heart muscle function. The major heart muscle dysfunction is divided into the following types.
This rare enough condition can be caused by the accumulation of abnormal protein or iron in the heart muscle. It can also be caused by the condition of amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, abnormalities in blood cells that can damage the heart, disruption of the connective tissue of the body, and other disorders of unknown sources. This disease generally occurs in elderly people though it can also occur at any age. This disorder arises as a result of cardiac muscle legs so the heart can not expand properly which leads to inhibition of blood flow into the heart.
This condition is largely due to the declining genetic condition within the family and can occur at any age. Disorders arise due to abnormal heart muscle thickening, especially in the left ventricle of the heart. This thickening causes the heart to become difficult to pump blood.
This condition can be caused by the consumption of drugs, chemotherapy drugs, alcohol, infections, coronary heart disease conditions, to unknown causes. This disease generally occurs in middle-aged men or patients with a history of cardiomyopathy in their family. Disorders arise because the left ventricular heart room of the patient can not contract and pump blood properly. This causes the left ventricle to dilate and inhibit blood flowing outside the heart.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
This type of cardiomyopathy is rare. Some cases are a hereditary disease that is often caused by mutations in one or more genes. This disorder arises because there are abnormalities in the protein that glue the heart muscle cells. Abnormal heart muscle cells that die are then replaced by new fatty and fibrous cells (scar tissue), causing the heart space to become thin and stretched. This new cell then blocks the heart to pump and spread blood throughout the body. This disease can occur at any age and the patient usually has a heartbeat rhythm that is problematic.
People with cardiomyopathy are at risk for heart failure or other heart disease. Having enough information about this disease can help you recognize symptoms of cardiomyopathy early.
Symptoms of Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy or weak heart is a disease that can appear at a young age and can cause sudden death for the sufferer. Be aware of the symptoms of cardiomyopathy especially in those with a history of heart failure in the family.
Here are the symptoms of heart muscle disorders that should be noticed and recognizable form:
- Swelling of the legs, feet, and ankles.
- Cough while lying down.
- Flatulence caused by fluid.
- Difficulty breathing even while resting.
- Irregular heartbeat.
- Dizziness and fainting.
- Pain in the chest.
In some cases, patients with cardiomyopathy may not show or feel these symptoms. Call your doctor immediately if you have difficulty breathing, chest pain lasting more than a few minutes, or fainting.
Diagnosis of Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy can be diagnosed through a series of tests based on the patient’s perceived symptoms. In addition to physical examination, the doctor will ask for family history of the disease. Other tests that may be experienced by patients with symptoms of cardiomyopathy are:
- Electrocardiogram (EKG), assessing electrical impulses to check whether there is a disruption of electrical activity in the heart. ECG tests can detect disorders that result in irregular heartbeat rhythms, arrhythmias, or other disorders that can impact cardiac activity.
- Echocardiography, used to know how well the heart works through sound waves. This test will provide imaging of heart size, pulse, and valve so that doctors can get a proper diagnosis.
- Treadmill stress test, performed to monitor stress levels that can be tolerated when the patient’s heart activity. The test will also examine how well your heart works by observing the breathing rhythm, blood pressure, and heart rhythm during the physical test.
- Cardiac catheterization, done by inserting a small tube through the groin to check the state of the heart’s blood vessels. In addition, this procedure can be used to measure pressure in the heart chambers. In addition, doctors can also perform coronary angiogram, ie by inserting a type of coloring liquid to ensure no blood vessels are blocked. This procedure is usually done when doctors need better heart imaging in addition to X-ray photo.
- Blood tests, taken to check the function of the thyroid gland, liver, and kidney and monitor blood levels of iron.
- Genetic testing or screening, especially in patients with a history of cardiomyopathy in the family. Family counseling is highly recommended before running this test.
- X-ray on the chest, used to determine if there is a heart enlargement in patients with symptoms of cardiomyopathy.
- MRI of the heart, usually done to support the results of echocardiography tests and to ensure the final diagnosis.
- CT Cardiac scan, performed to estimate heart size as well as monitor heart function and heart valve conditions.
Patients with cardiomyopathy will require a thorough examination of heart function, including monitoring the risk of serious arrhythmias. This is why the symptoms that appear should be consulted immediately to the doctor to avoid complications that led to death.
Treatment of Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy or weak heart has several treatment options that refer to the symptoms and type of cardiomyopathy suffered. But the focus of treatment measures of this disease is to prevent serious complications and sudden death. Here are the treatment actions performed based on the type of cardiomyopathy suffered, the type of action can be either drug delivery or medical action:
Dilated cardiomyopathy can be treated with medications or implanted cardioversion implant in the body. Drugs provided to reduce blood pressure, increase blood flow, slow the heart rate, prevent blood clot, and remove excess fluid in the body. In addition to drugs, the installation of cardioversion defibrillator implants in the body to monitor and control the heart rhythm. Pacemakers can also be recommended to reduce the risk of developing heart rate problems.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be treated with both medical and drug treatment. Drugs can reduce the pumping power of the heart, stabilize the rhythm, and make the heart more relaxed. If the patient is at serious risk, cardioversion defibrillator implants can be used to reduce irregular heartbeat problems. Another medical action that can be done is septal myectomy, which is the thickening of the muscle wall of the heart (septum) thickened to smooth the blood flow while reducing mitral valve regurgitation. In addition, ablation of the heart muscle is thickened so that blood supply can flow through the area. This procedure, called septal ablation, uses an injection of alcohol in the heart muscle that it wants to destroy.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy requires more focused treatment for symptom reduction. Your doctor will monitor your daily salt and water intake. Patients will be advised to take diuretic medications that may increase the frequency of urination if the patient has problems with sodium levels or when the body holds too much water. Other drugs may also be prescribed to reduce blood pressure or abnormal heart rate rhythms. If the disease is caused by amyloidosis, then the treatment will be adjusted to the condition of the disease.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy can be followed up with the administration of drugs that can regulate the heart rate rhythm. Drugs can also be administered to patients with cardioveri fibrillation, but still have a rapid heart rate rhythm. In addition to the installation of cardioversion defibrillator implants, patients can be treated using radio frequency ablation procedures. Appointment of this body tissue using a catheter to drain electrodes that will destroy the heart tissue causes heart rhythm disorders.
Ventricular assist devices (VAD), used to promote blood circulation in the heart. This tool can be used in the long term or short. Examples of its use can be as long as the patient awaits the process of heart transplantation. This tool is also used when other procedures do not produce the desired results.
Heart transplantation. This procedure is the last treatment option to be taken when all treatment procedures are ineffective or in conditions of chronic heart failure.
Most of the treatment can not be separated from the effects of side effects for health. It is important for the patient to get as much information as possible about the illness so as not to continue to be a complication. A doctor’s consultation is also highly recommended during the treatment process.
Complications of Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy or weak heart can cause serious complications if not promptly diagnosed and treated properly. Some complications that can arise, including blood clotting to inhibition of flow to other organs, heart valves that do not close completely to the risk of causing blood flow leads back to the heart, or heart failure that can lead to sudden death. Call your doctor immediately to get treatment before your health condition worsens and trigger complications.
Prevention of Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy or weak heart include conditions that can not be cured, so in addition to handling good symptoms, patients can prevent or reduce the complications of this disease by starting a healthier life habits. Some lifestyle changes that can be done:
- Reduce weight if you are obese.
- Begin a sports habit that is not too heavy for the heart.
- Stop smoking.
- Reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages.
- Arrange the time well to get enough sleep.
- Pay attention to food intake by applying a healthy diet every day, including reducing salt and sodium levels.
- Avoid stress.
- Schedule regular visits to your doctor to monitor your health condition or if you have other diseases at the same time.
- Be sure to follow doctor’s advice when taking medication.
It’s never too late to start a change that has the potential to have a positive impact on your health. Expand the knowledge of the disease suffered, and inform the doctor if there is a history of cardiomyopathy in the family to get initial treatment in order to reduce the risk of disease worsen or complications arise.