Brain Cancer Treatment For Humans
Patients with brain cancer usually require surgery to remove the tumor as a brain cancer treatment. The remaining tissue left of the tumor is treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of both. After the treatment of brain cancer, brain cancer can re-emerge. When this happens, the next procedure is to prolong the life as long as possible and overcome the symptoms.
Handling Against Primary Brain Cancer
Some treatments for primary brain cancer (originating from the brain) are:
The purpose of surgery is to remove as many tumors as possible in the brain without damaging the surrounding tissue. To see the brain and the tumor in it, a portion of the skull will be opened. This is known as the craniotomy process. After that, a brain surgeon can remove the tumor.
In addition to surgery, the doctor may be running photodynamic therapy. In this therapy, a light-sensitive drug is inserted into the blood vessels and absorbed by the remaining cancer cells. When laser light is directed at cancer cells, this drug will be active and kill cancer cells.
To reduce the risk that the tumor does not return, after surgical removal of the primary tumor, the tumor will be treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy, or it can be a combination of both.
Chemotherapy is done to treat tumors that are deep in the brain and difficult to remove without damaging other neural networks. Chemotherapy is a treatment used to kill cancer cells and can be given in the form of tablets, injections, or implants. Two chemotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of high-grade brain tumors are:
- Carmustine implants. This implant will dissolve and release carmustine to slow or stop the growth of cancer cells. Some of the side effects of Carmustine implants are brain edema (increased brain fluid), infection in the brain, convulsions.
- Temozolamide. This drug is given to glioma malignant patients to slow the development of tumors after initial treatment or when the tumor reappears. Side effects of temozolomide include headache, constipation, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting.
Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery
Just like chemotherapy, radiotherapy and radiosurgery are also performed to treat tumors deep inside the brain and difficult to remove. In the process of radiotherapy, high-energy radiation doses are centered on tumors to stop cancer cells from continuing to multiply.
While in radiosurgery, the radiation used has a lower intensity and this radiation is administered over several times. The function of radiosurgery is to concentrate the radiation dose with high levels of energy on the tumor to kill it.
The difference, in radiotherapy is on the radiation beam with a higher intensity, centered on a small part of the area of the brain, and is only given for one session (not several times).
Handling Against Secondary Brain Cancer
Understanding of secondary tumors is a tumor that has spread to other parts of the body and has been indicated as a serious tumor condition. Under these conditions, treatment is continued only to prolong the life and control of the tumor. Treatments that can be done:
- Painkillers, to relieve headaches.
- Anti-nausea medications, can help relieve nausea symptoms caused by increased pressure within the skeleton head.
- Corticosteroids, drugs to reduce swelling and pressure on the brain.
- Anticonvulsant drugs, which prevent epilepsy seizures.
- Chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Palliative care can be an alternative if patients do not want to undergo cancer treatment. This treatment aims to control the symptoms of cancer and make the patient feel more comfortable.
If choosing palliative care, patients will only get side effects from treatment without removing the tumor. Consult a physician so that the sufferer understands what will happen if you choose not to be treated.