What is Acute Kidney Failure?
Acute kidney failure is a term for the condition in which a person’s kidneys are suddenly damaged, which can not function. Acute kidney failure occurs when the kidneys suddenly can not filter out chemical waste from the blood that can trigger the buildup or accumulation of waste in the body. The buildup of chemical and salt waste in the body can stop other organs from functioning properly.
Typically, acute renal failure occurs as a complication of other serious illnesses. Kidney diseases like this are generally suffered by elderly or intensive care patients in the hospital.
If not treated quickly, acute kidney failure can cause permanent injury (the kidneys stop functioning) or even endanger life. However, if treated on time and the patient’s general health condition is good, then he or she has a chance of fully recovering.
Symptoms of Acute Kidney Failure
Some of the symptoms of acute renal failure are as follows:
- Reduced urine production.
- Dazed or confused.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Hard to breathe.
- The buildup of fluid in the body or edema.
- Pain in the chest.
- Back pain.
- Stomach ache.
- High blood pressure or hypertension.
In the early phase, acute renal failure is asymptomatic and can only be detected through laboratory testing. But, this disease can deteriorate very quickly, and suddenly the patient experiences some of the above symptoms.
Causes and Risk Factors of Acute Kidney Failure
The majority of acute renal failure occurs due to reduced blood flow to the kidneys. Here are some things that can reduce blood flow to the kidneys:
- Low blood volume, this occurs due to bleeding, vomiting and excessive diarrhea, as well as severe dehydration.
- The amount of heart-pumped blood is below normal, this is due to heart failure or liver failure.
- Disorders of the blood vessels, caused by swelling and blockage of the major blood vessels leading to the kidneys.
- Some medicines can interfere with the blood supply to the kidneys or even interfere with the kidneys. Examples of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), medications for hypertension, and certain antibiotics.
- The dye liquor, which is used in imaging and X-ray imaging tests.
In addition to the reduced blood flow to the kidneys, acute renal failure can also be triggered by the following two causes:
- Blockage of the urinary tract, so waste from the kidneys can not be thrown through the urine.
- Direct damage to the kidneys, which can be caused by the accumulation of cholesterol, blood clots, glomerulonephritis, lupus, multiple myeloma, scleroderma, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, infection, and certain drugs.
There are several things that increase a person’s risk of acute renal failure, namely:
- Has a high risk of urinary tract blockage.
- Have liver disease.
- The blood vessels in the arms and legs are blocked.
- Affected by severe infection.
- 65 years of age or older.
- In intensive care at the hospital.
Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Failure
Diagnosis is a doctor’s step to identify a disease or condition that explains the symptoms and signs experienced by the patient. To diagnose acute kidney failure, your doctor will do the following:
- Blood test.
- Urine test and urine volume measurements are removed.
- Imaging test. Doctors can see the condition of the kidney through ultrasound or CT scan.
- Biopsy or tissue sampling of the kidneys to be tested.
Typically, adult patients may be concluded with acute renal failure if the diagnosis is as follows:
- The content of creatinine in the blood above normal and continues to increase.
- The volume of urine removed is reduced.
Treatment and Complications of Acute Kidney Failure
Treatment of acute renal failure is highly dependent on the underlying cause of this condition and how long it has been. Most people with acute renal failure will be hospitalized for treatment. But, there are some people with acute kidney failure who can be treated at home.
If you are on an outpatient basis, your doctor usually recommends the following:
- Advise patient to consult with urologist and renal expert.
- Treat infections that are responsible for acute renal failure.
- Increase mineral water consumption to avoid dehydration.
- Conduct blood tests to monitor creatinine and salt levels.
- Stopping any treatment at risk for acute kidney failure.
Patients will be required to undergo hospitalization under the following conditions:
- The risk of urine blockage.
- Diseases that cause acute renal failure require immediate treatment.
- The condition of the patient is getting worse.
- Patients affected by acute renal failure.
For people with severe acute kidney failure, dialysis or dialysis may be necessary, as the kidneys are able to perform their normal functions.
Acute renal failure may trigger some serious complications as follows:
- Acidity of blood increases. This condition causes nausea and vomiting, difficulty breathing, and dizziness.
- Permanent kidney damage, which results in permanent loss of renal function.
- The high content of potassium in the blood. This can lead to weakened muscles, paralysis, and disturbances in the heartbeat.
- Fluid accumulation in the lungs (pulmonary edema).
- Pain in the chest. The swelling of the lining that covers the heart (pericarditis), makes patients with acute renal failure feel the sensation of pain in the chest.
Prevention of Acute Kidney Failure
All people at risk for acute renal failure should be supervised when they are sick or start a new treatment. These people are advised to undergo a blood test and check the volume of urine that is routinely discarded.
The risk of acute renal failure can also be decreased by maintaining kidney health. Here are two ways to keep it up:
- Follow the instructions on the label when taking the over-the-counter medication. For example ibuprofen and aspirin.
- Consult your doctor to treat kidney disorders. Follow the doctor’s recommendations to keep the body from attacking diseases that can trigger acute kidney failure.
- Living a healthy lifestyle. Doing exercises regularly, maintaining a healthy diet, and avoiding alcoholic drinks will help you lower your risk of acute kidney failure.