What is Acute Glomerulonephritis?
Acute Glomerulonephritis is one type of kidney disease in the form of damage that occurs in the glomeruli. Glomeruli are small filters in the kidneys that function to remove excess fluid, electrolytes, and waste from the bloodstream. This damage will cause the wasting of blood and protein through the urine.
The condition of glomerulonephritis in each patient can vary. Some are experiencing it in a short time (acute) and there is a long-term (chronic). The disease can also grow rapidly resulting in kidney damage within weeks or months.
Symptoms of Acute Glomerulonephritis
Glomerulonephritis rarely causes specific symptoms. But if it gets worse, this condition can trigger the appearance of blood in the urine. Some other indications that may accompany the main symptoms include:
- The frothy urine.
- Swelling of the face, hands, feet, and stomach.
- Fatigue due to anemia or kidney failure.
Many diseases can be the cause behind this symptom. You should have a thorough examination if you experience it so that the cause can be known.
Causes and Factors Triggering Acute Glomerulonephritis
The cause behind glomerulonephritis is not known for certain. But experts suspect that glomerulonephritis is an autoimmune condition, in which the immune system breaks down and attacks healthy cells. The following are some conditions that may trigger inflammation and damage to the glomeruli.
- Complications of certain infections, such as throat infection by streptococcal bacteria, HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, and endocarditis (inflammation of the heart valve).
- Other autoimmune conditions are usually inherited, for example lupus, vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessel walls), or immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is the accumulation of immunoglobulin A type in renal glomeruli.
- Have a chronic illness, such as hypertension or diabetes.
Diagnosis of Acute Glomerulonephritis
This condition is generally known through the results of abnormal urine tests. To confirm the diagnosis, your doctor will usually recommend some more detailed examinations such as:
- Blood tests to check the levels of creatinine and urea in the blood. This increased substance will indicate kidney damage as well as glomeruli.
- Urine tests, especially for checking levels of protein, white blood cells, and red blood cells.
- Ultrasound or CT scan of the kidney.
- Sampling of renal tissue through biopsy procedure. This is done if the doctor needs to make sure you have glomerulonephritis. Biopsy will also help the doctor to find the cause of the glomerulonephritis that you aspire to.
Treatment of Acute Glomerulonephritis
Step treatment for each person with glomerulonephritis certainly different. This difference is determined by several factors, namely the type of glomerulonephritis you are immobilized (chronic or acute), the cause, as well as the severity of the symptoms you are experiencing.
Mild glomerulonephritis can sometimes heal by itself without the need for certain treatment. Usually caused by a streptococcal infection in the throat. While treatment for long-term or chronic glomerulonephritis can be done by:
- Controlling your hypertension and blood sugar levels.
- Handles the cause of the glomerulonephritis that you are absorbing.
- Use drugs, such as immunosuppressants or corticosteroids.
- Applying a healthy lifestyle, such as regular exercise, reduce consumption of salty foods or high protein, stop smoking, and increase consumption of fluids and fiber.
Complications of Acute Glomerulonephritis
Glomerulonephritis can sometimes heal without certain treatment, especially mild ones. But if not handled carefully, this condition can get worse and trigger other diseases. Some of the possible complications are:
- Nephrotic syndrome.
- Acute renal failure.
- Chronic kidney disease.
- Damage to other organs such as heart failure and pulmonary edema due to fluid retained in the body.